Researchers found that 4G vulnerabilities can steal user information and send false alarms

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According to foreign media reports, researchers at Purdue University and the University of Iowa after research and investigation found a large number of new vulnerabilities in the 4G LTE network, they can peeping user information, tapping their phones, making the device offline or even false Emergency alert. The researchers described 10 attacks in detail in their response report.

These vulnerabilities can initiate authentication relay attacks by emulating the identities of existing users. While verifying that relay attacks are not new attacks, recent research shows that they can be used to intercept messages, track users’ locations, and prevent them from connecting to the network.

During the study, researchers used a test framework called LTEInspector that helps detect loopholes in LTE radios and networks.

Syed Rafiul Hussain, a member of the research team, said that among the 10 attacks they discovered, they have identified 8 of them with SIMs from four major carriers in the United States. “Most of these attacks are rooted in the lack of proper authentication, encryption, and playback of critical protocol information.”

Hussain said the vulnerabilities could be used to ficture the victim’s device’s location. This will give some criminals a hindrance to the progress of investigations by law enforcement officials through the placement of fake location information.

Another is to send “false alarms” to devices in specific areas, triggering “human confusion.” The warning of a ballistic missile in Hawaii in January this year caused quite a stir in the area, except that it was not triggered by a cyberattack, but both had the same impact.

Hussain said they found that a carrier in the United States has never been able to encrypt aircraft information and is most likely to be used by cybercriminals to steal cell phone messages and other sensitive data. However, Hussain did not disclose the company’s name, but said the other has been fixed.

The researchers also said that anyone can use the common software radio and open source 4G LTE protocol software to launch these attacks, the cost can be as low as 1300 US dollars to 3900 US dollars. However, they will not be released with any proof-of-concept code until the vulnerabilities have been fixed.

While every merchant promises that the upcoming 5G network will become faster and safer, it is clear that 4G LTE will not disappear in the near future, so these loopholes should not be underestimated.

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iPhone X sales less than 40 million this season

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According to foreign media reports, the Nikkei Asian Review reported January 29 and February 20 that Apple is reducing the production of iPhone X from 40 million units in March to 20 million units in March.

This seems to be the market for the iPhone in March quarter of the quarter was significantly lower than the previous quarter in December last year, iPhone X sales will be disappointing. But when you look at these numbers and compare them to the new products of the same period last year, you will find that 20 million iPhone X data are more historical.

The article, January 29, pushed Apple shares to fall more than $ 3 a share, plunging from $ 171.51 to $ 167.96 a share. A few days later, the company’s performance outlook for the quarter’s March results also did not help, as the market is still expected to play a role in the super cycle of the iPhone, the company’s December quarterly earnings release the day after the stock fell To 160.50 US dollars. However, on Friday, the company closed at 176.21 U.S. dollars, regaining all previous losses.

The other 30 million iPhones produced seem to be ignored

The Nikkei Asia Review said on January 29 that “Apple will halve the iPhone X production target within three months starting in January from the 40 million set at the time of its launch in November last year. The U.S. tech giant has informed its suppliers that it has decided to cut its production target for the first quarter to about 20 million.

The article concludes, “It is estimated that Apple will maintain a total of 30 million production targets for low-priced products such as the iPhone 8 and 8 Plus.” That is, a total of 50 million iPhone production, which is in line with the quarterly iPhone in December last year 77.3 million sales compared to a decrease of 35%. In the past two years, such a decline of 32% and 35% respectively, so the 35% decline is not unusual.

iPhone 8 release seems to be investors “forgotten”

Market research firm Consumer Intelligence Research Partnership (CIRP) estimates that iPhone 8 and 8 Plus accounted for 24% and 17% of iPhones sold in the United States in the December quarter respectively. Together, the two accounted for 41% of the total, a double that of CIRP’s estimated iPhone X sales of 20%. In addition, iPhone 8 and 8 Plus average selling price is slightly higher than its predecessors iPhone 7 and 7 Plus. This helped raise the total iPhone sales price from $ 696 to $ 797 and a year-on-year increase of $ 101.

Josh Lowitz, co-founder and co-founder of CIRP, said: “All three of the newest iPhones accounted for less of the total US iPhone sales in the December quarter than in the same period last year. The same period last year, iPhone 7 and 7 Plus two sales in the total iPhone sales accounted for 72%.

He also said, “However, with the previous release of the iPhone is not comparable.First, the iPhone X is not the beginning of the quarter when the introduction of Apple’s product lineup further market segmentation, the company now has 8 products, but also Apple released new handsets at different times, releasing three new handsets at a time, but the introduction of the most advanced and expensive iPhone X was postponed for five weeks after the release of the iPhone 8 and 8 Plus.

What is Apple’s forecast for quarterly iPhone sales in March?

Apple did not provide detailed iPhone performance expectations, but this can be estimated by us because we know the history of each product line quarterly revenue, sales and average sales price changes. Based on these estimates Apple’s expectations, that is, the quarter of March Apple iPhone sales of about 53 million.

This is below the level analysts expected in a super cycle, but this is consistent with the historical decline of the past three years.

iPhone X will not become the largest sales of Apple products

Based on a survey of 500 Apple customers in the United States, CIRP has been tracking iPhone sales in the United States for many years. Below is a breakdown of the estimates for the quarter in March over the last three years and the latest iPhone sales. These figures show that the share of the latest iPhone in sales is declining every year.

Specific figures are:

In the March quarter quarter of 2015 (iPhone 5c, iPhone 5s, iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus), iPhone 6 sales accounted for 56%, iPhone 6 Plus sales accounted for 22%, a total of 78% .
March 2016 quarter, where the 5 products (iPhone 5s, iPhone 6, iPhone 6 Plus, iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus) in, iPhone 6s sales accounted for 43%, iPhone 6s Plus sales accounted for 28%, both Total 71%.

Among the five products in the quarterly March 2017 (iPhone SE, iPhone 6s, iPhone 6s Plus, iPhone 7 and iPhone 7s Plus), iPhone 7 accounted for 35% of sales and iPhone 7 Plus accounted for 33% of sales, both Total 68%.

CIRP estimated that the iPhone X in the December quarter of last quarter accounted for 20% of the US iPhone sales. If Apple did sell 20 million iPhone X in the quarter of March of this year, and assuming iPhone sold 50 million, iPhone X sales will account for 40% of iPhone’s total sales.

In the December quarter quarter of 8 products (iPhone SE, iPhone 6s, iPhone 6s Plus, iPhone 7, iPhone 7s Plus, iPhone 8, iPhone 8 Plus, iPhone X), iPhone 8 sales accounted for 24%, iPhone 8 Plus is 17%, iPhone X is 20%, the three together for 61%.

in conclusion

After all, iPhonex will not sell 40 million units in the quarter of March, if it is 20 million it will be close to the historical situation. Even if only sold 20 million iPhone X, Apple should also dominate the profit margins of smart phones.

Is Musk’s space Internet successful?

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SpaceX, a unit of Elon Musk, sent two test internet satellites into space. This means that Musk has joined a space race that has left many people dreamy of death.

Each company has burned billions of dollars in its dream of providing Internet services to the world through low-orbit satellite systems. Globalstar, a satellite carrier, and Iridium Communications, an Iridium satellite, are on the brink of bankruptcy. The dream is also underpinned by Microsoft founders Bill Gates, Boeing and other investors.

But the bleak reality did not block the progress of nearly two dozen companies. They are scrambling to raise funds to reach out to more Internet broadband users, including many who are beyond the reach of traditional mobile services.

Icon: Falcon heavy rocket

“There is not much more than hysteria and unrealistic expectations,” Roger Rusch, president of Palos Verdes, a California-based market consultancy, said in an interview.

SpaceX, one of Muskela’s space exploration technology companies, OneWeb of Greg Wyler, Boeing, and Telesat of Canada are demanding that the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allow its use of satellites to provide Internet broadband services.

But Lusch said the technical challenges are daunting. Low-orbit satellite systems not only require complex software to operate satellites, but also require complex ground antenna systems to keep pace with satellites in the sky. Lush noted that operating expenditures will soon exceed the savings made using small satellite equipment.

Boeing is applying to the FCC for licenses for 60 satellites, and last year the FCC had licensed OneWeb to use the 720 satellite service licensed by the United Kingdom to the U.S. market.

SpaceX’s plan would require 4,425 satellites to be in orbit, and it will submit an application to the FCC for an additional 7,518 satellites. Ajit Pai, chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, expressed his support for the application, which makes it possible for SpaceX to license Internet broadband services through low-orbit satellite systems.

According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, a coalition of U.S. scientists for anxiety, as of August last year, there were 1,738 orbiting satellites in orbit worldwide. The number of satellites in the SpaceX program will far exceed the number of satellites currently in operation in all countries.

SpaceX spokesman John Taylor said in an emailed statement that the two satellites launched last week are all test equipment. “Even though these satellites are on track as planned, we still have a lot of technical work to do in designing and deploying low-orbit satellite systems,” said Taylor, which will provide affordable high-speed Internet access in less populated remote areas Into service.

LEO satellites range from 50 to 1,200 miles (80 to 2,000 kilometers) above the Earth and run around Earth orbit every 90 minutes. Traditional communications satellites, about 22,000 miles (36,000 kilometers) above the ground, require one day to travel around the Earth’s orbit and stay relatively still with the Earth itself.

Low-orbit satellites offer additional advantages in sending and receiving wideband signals with less signal latency and no interruption in phone calls and streaming video. At present Universal Broadband service has become a more compelling target, said Satellite Industry Association President Tom Stroup, with a growing demand for satellite services.

Strlub said the new generation of satellites has become more compact and lightweight. “We’ve gone completely beyond the realm of experimentation,” Strrub pointed out. “We’re moving into the next generation of technology.”

Tim Farrar, an analyst at market research firm TMF Associates LLC, said in an interview that satellite capabilities are stronger, in part because they can use higher frequencies to transmit more data. He said tracking satellite ground terminal equipment is also getting smaller and lower cost more.

Of course, innovators also need to compete with existing satellite service providers such as Iridium. The company is using SpaceX’s repeated launch to upgrade its 66 low-orbit satellites. ViaSat Inc. announced on February 27 that it will provide broadband services over high-orbit satellites.

Rupert Pearce, chief executive of British satellite carrier Inmarsat Plc, said: “To me, a business case did not say ‘yes or no’ but ‘did my investment pay off?’ “The company was a survivor of the bubble burst in the satellite market in the 1990s. Inmarsat Plc currently offers broadband services through 13 high-orbit satellites.

“We have not seen a commercial case for LEO satellite networks,” Pierce said in an interview. This is “extremely challenging,” he said. Such satellites themselves require lower manufacturing costs and are difficult to achieve for those typical “highly customized” products. For Inmarsat Plc, they need to change their satellites every four to five years.

In addition, due to the inability of satellite services to connect directly to the interior, corresponding ground equipment presents many operational challenges. Low-orbit satellites are constantly moving; when a satellite slides below the horizon, another satellite needs to be immediately overhead, providing a seamless connection for users who are using the Internet, otherwise network services will be disrupted.

Of course, Musk will use SpaceX’s rocket launcher technology to reduce costs and reuse, rather than discard expensive rocket. When SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket plans to launch two broadband satellites on February 22, Musk said it would offer the lowest cost service if successful.

As early as 2015, when Musk announced the establishment of an engineering complex in Redmond, Washington, near Seattle, the Internet satellite program was revealed. Musk said that to build the entire system need to spend 10 billion to 15 billion US dollars, maybe more. However, once completed, it will generate significant revenue for SpaceX and provide financial support to immigrants Mars.

“What do we need to build a city on Mars in the long run? Well, one thing is for sure: a lot of money,” Musk said. “So we need something that generates a lot of money.”

OneWeb’s Weiler, meanwhile, is working with Airbus to develop satellites in France and Florida, and has attracted Qualcomm, Virgin Atlantic under Richard Branson and Japan’s Softbank Group, which is controlled by billionaire Son Masayoshi investment.

Intelsat SA, senior vice president of strategy and planning for satellite communications services provider Intelsat SA, said in an interview Intelsat SA plans to begin offering OneWeb services around 2020.

Vail pointed out that OneWeb will launch satellites this year, which is expected to launch every three to six weeks. He described it as a “mission” to make up for the digital divide by 2027.

Vincent Chan, a professor at MIT, said the project feasibility depends on how much people are willing to pay for the service.

“The trouble is that technically feasible does not mean that it is economically viable,” Chan said in an interview. “In Africa, who can afford the $ 100 a month service fee? Maybe $ 10 they can consider.” One dollar, they can certainly afford it. ”

However, Strup of the Satellite Industry Association believes that the company will certainly be pouring into the industry.

Strup said: “The eventual winner will be a consumer with multiple options for broadband satellite services.”

Nokia’s decline has been 10 years, but the brand awareness is still high

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According to VentureBeat, none of the smartphones launched at this year’s World Congress on Mobile Communications (MWC) in Barcelona have yet a stunning product. As usual, various manufacturers released a variety of smart phones, Samsung once again dominate. In addition, network neutrality has been the focus of attention as Ajit Pai, chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), attended. 5G also has many early and interesting innovations, but the distance remains a reality.

However, under the flagship of Samsung and the future of 5G Dreamland, HMD Global shines this year. Known as the “Nokia Phone House,” the company introduced more than one new product and two new products, but five new Nokia branded phones. In addition to four smartphones, including the flagship Nokia 7 Plus, and a nostalgic product in the form of a redesigned Nokia 8810 “banana phone,” it is clear that the Nokia handset brand regains its attention here.


If you have been following the legend of Nokia phones for the past few years, you know the background story, but we still need a brief review.

Nokia itself no longer produce mobile phones. In 2016, the Finnish company helped set up a new business called HMD Global to ensure that Nokia’s mobile phone brands will survive the licensing agreement. HMD Global mainly develops Nokia-branded smartphones and feature phones, while Foxconn subsidiary FIH Mobile is responsible for production tasks.

Therefore, in addition to lending the famous names of these phones, Nokia has no direct connection with the development of these phones. After all, when you have a good traditional cell phone brand and it’s accepted by billions of people, why are you using the HMD Global name on your new device?

Although HMD Global is still in its infancy, things have proceeded quite smoothly. In December last year, HMD Global launched 6 smartphones and 5 feature phones in the market during the first full year of its 10-year license agreement. Together with five other new devices announced at MWC, Nokia will soon have 16 new mobile devices available for purchase worldwide. Early sales figures are encouraging.

In December last year, Counterpoint Research analysts reported that in the third quarter of 2017, from the point of view of handset shipments, Nokia branded handsets are the eighth most popular handsets in the world and the best-selling brand in the Middle East Britain’s third best-selling brand. But it is worth noting that these data include feature phones and smart phones.

However, the same analyst reported the fourth quarter of 2017 last month, noting that Nokia smartphones have outsell HTC, Sony, Google, OnePlus, Lenovo and others. Obviously, HMD Global sold 4.4 million Nokia smartphones last quarter.

These numbers are not specific, but make people happy. HMD Global apparently wants to strike hard while MWC announces the launch of five new handsets. However, do not be over-proud, as Nokia’s recent footprint accounts for only 1% of the total smartphone market share. More importantly, we should look at the bigger picture to see how Nokia did it.


Historically, the timing of the latest release is noteworthy, with Nokia’s handset brands having been stuck in the downward direction for the last decade.

In February 2008, market research firm Gartner released a report that Nokia is the world’s largest mobile phone brand, accounting for about 40% of the previous year’s smart phone shipments. However, Apple had just released its first iPhone in mid-2007, and by the end of 2008, the first commercial Android phone was available. With the outbreak of the smartphone war, Nokia snapped up Symbian in 2008 to boost its ambitions in emerging areas.

The next thing happened very quickly. When the iPhone and Android devices start to roll out, it’s always interesting to see the stock prices of some tech companies. In the case of Nokia, its share price slipped almost vertically from October 2007 to October, more than halved. By 2011, the company has been Microsoft’s revenue pocket, the two sides pushed the third force in the field of smart phone operating system, Nokia’s share price in 2012 fell to record lows.

By 2014, Nokia’s mobile phone business was entirely owned by Microsoft, but by the second year, Microsoft had $ 7.6 billion in assets under the acquisition. In 2016, Microsoft terms of the acquisition expires, Microsoft and Nokia parted ways. It is also at this moment that Nokia realizes that it will have to start all over again because it does not have the necessary production infrastructure to manufacture the hardware on a large scale.

However, Nokia has its own brand and is a strong brand, recognized by millions of people over a given age. It does not matter who made the phone in the end, it is important to have a clear Nokia badge on the phone.

status quo

Many have written about the history of HMD Global and Nokia, a strong brand name, high-end Android phones, a handful of nostalgic products like the Nokia 3310, and the recently released 8810. We are confident in restoring the former Nokia handset brand.

But a swallow does not summer. At HMD Global, several good quarterly performances and the launch of a series of new handsets do not mean it has regained the world. But that does show the power of the brand and its appeal to consumers is still unparalleled.

The study found that the vast majority of blockchain still belong to “pseudo-decentralization

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People always talk about the beach, all your worries disappear.

But this is not entirely true of researchers at the 2018 Financial Crypto 2018 conference this week in Curaçao, an island in the Caribbean, where they discussed two of the largest crypto-currency protocols, bit Money and Ethereum, and some of their shortcomings.

On March 2, researchers at the University College London published a new essay entitled “An egalitarian social or philanthropic government: Encrypting the State of Money Management” by measuring how many developers are involved and modifying Encrypted currency code library, which further in-depth study of this topic.

According to the paper, 7% of Bitcoin Core’s software is written by the same developer, and about 20% of the files are written by the same coder.

According to Sarah Azouvi, Ph.D., Ph.D. in computer science at the University College London, co-author of the dissertation, based on the research information above, Ethereum is more centralized than Bitcoin in this regard.

This is an interesting point because it involves the current fierce debate in the Ethereum community where the two sides are tit-for tat against the EIP 867.

EIP 867 seems to have made it easier by recovering lost funds through software changes – a controversial topic that dates back to the 2016 hacking of DAO, when Ethereum Of developers decided to reverse the transaction, so as to return the stolen funds to the victims.

However, while there are often many similar discussions on GitHub, the total number of related discussion users involved is less than what Azouvi and many others expect.

She told CoinDesk:

“There are still not many people involved, and most of them make some comments everywhere, and not many are critical discussions.”

Those decision makers

However, the debate over funding losses at Ethereum is not the only reason Culexo’s participants discussed the web. Another reason highlighted in this paper is management, as most of the major code changes in Ethereum were written by Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin himself.

“He stands out from everyone,” Azouvi said.

This finding is not surprising, as it has been the focus of debate for some time, and many believe Buterin has too much power over the web in a blockchain known as truly decentralized.

Even Jason Teutsch, developer of TrueBit, an Ethereum expansion agreement, jokes that even when asked about management-related issues, Buterin can even handle everything. However, on a more serious issue, he believes that the recent debate has only shown how difficult blockchain management is under normal circumstances, and generally there is no way for everyone to be satisfied.

Teutsch told CoinDesk:

“It’s a hard question, it happens to every system that needs to be managed, and it’s always upset every time things change.”

Not so unusual

However, while the management of the blockchain seems to be more central than the decentralized projects expected of people, researchers at the University College London have pointed out that this is not unusual.

For example, Ethereum and Bitcoin have similar levels of engagement with other open source projects, such as the programming languages ​​Clojure and Rust.

“Although the community is focused on decentralization, it’s no different and they all behave similarly,” she said.

In addition, the paper admits that “measuring the degree of centralization by looking at the code or looking at a particular source” is itself limited.

On this main line, IC3 researchers proposed during the conference that there are actually some technical ways to measure the degree of centralization of a cryptocurrency project.

In particular, they examined how often blocks travel across the network and how the nodes in the blockchain are geographically distributed. By identifying these two aspects, the researchers found that Ethereum’s performance is superior in both respects In bitcoin.

One listener added that from another perspective, the decentralization of the cryptocurrency economy, which is overlooked in the research of the conventions, is also an important factor.

Voting rights

However, as people become more interested in the decentralization of cryptocurrencies, one might think that the corresponding solutions are also being considered.

However, the participating researchers and developers were essentially neutral about the issues facing Ethernet Square and Bitcoin, saying they wanted to sidestep their stance on making decisions around the agreement.

“I do not want to have any position.” “I’m interested in technology solutions, but I will not favor either side,” especially when talking about the recent debate about Ethereum, Teutsch said, and he then pointed out a better vote Mechanisms are a way of settling disputes.

Azouvi seems to be ashamed of her position, saying: “We did not come up with a new system and we counted how many people were doing.”

Still, she goes on to echo Teutsch’s point of view: “Ethereum can benefit from having a more formal management model, but that’s hard to come by, even if you want a more formal decision Way, it is difficult to decide who should write, and then who should vote.

She suggested: “They can try to make sure everyone who can vote can vote.”

Despite this, Azouvi pointed out that voting opened up a whole new way:

“Voting is a problem in itself, but it makes sense.”

To become a Musk-like person, the first step is to imitate his method of learning

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Musk’s way of learning is the basis for his continuous innovation, and the application and reconstruction of knowledge is the reason why he can innovate continuously. This article is compiled from Medium, originally entitled “Want To Innovate Like Elon Musk? Know How To Learn Like Him First,” by Kunal Shandilya.

Years ago, I had developed an app in the Google Play Store, and I was able to develop products that led the way in the same category of apps, but bleak compared to products that Musk had developed.

Compared to Musk’s development process at that time, I took him a completely opposite development path. The fact also proves that how my development is unscientific. However, there are still a lot of developers like me, and they are not aware of the disadvantages of their own way of doing things because they are too busy learning to notice the inherent nature of learning and do not realize there is a better alternative The program is next to it.

When I was learning product development, I used a lazy learning method that requires learning from generic learning, an Android-specific library to learn before learning JAVA common library. Before I learned how to implement basic functions, I first learned how to call complex part.

Accompanied by functional innovation, the realization of more and more difficult, the difficulty of developing gradually increased, and sometimes I have to go to Google to search some of the basics and common sense I should have known, and thus wasting a lot of time. Reflecting deeply on this learning process, I also come to understand why the behind-the-scenes employers of several large corporations world-renowned for innovation are opposed to such learning.

As I prepare to explore a new way of learning, seeing what Musk suggests to everyone, he always suggests that learning should start from the ground up. The system of knowledge is like a tree with leaves, fruits, trunks and roots . Musk that learning should follow the law of natural growth of the tree, the first to grow roots and then grow the trunk and then extract the sprouts.

Reflect on my learning process, I was based on the needs of the application to learn, which is equivalent to I grow branches before the buds have been drawn, according to the needs of learning, learning content is narrower, it will result in basic learning is not deep enough , You will naturally need to constantly rework to learn more basics to enrich the trunk of the tree of knowledge.

According to Musk’s learning suggestions, I am in the development of APP should:

1. Learning system composition and working principle;

2. Understand the system’s hardware and software features

3. Understand the nature of programming

4 understand that there are those programming languages ​​and programming system

5. Learning algorithms, language specifications, libraries and other basic language content, such as learning JAVA language specifications, JAVA algorithms and libraries, etc.

6. Understand what kind of Android system, how to run

7. Learn JAVA based on the Android library-specific functions and components

If you look at this way of learning, do you understand why Musk will be different? It is because of his tireless continuous mining study of the essence, until he touched the bottom of the knowledge, he will give up.

This way of learning is not a simple matter. It takes a lot of time and patience to learn. Just as you need to understand the importance of Tesla, you need to know all the history of traffic development.

However, such a learning method is a one-time investment way of learning. Just as a sharpener does not mistakenly cut a woodworker, it is necessary to make its due contribution in advance. Building a knowledge tree, there must be a thick trunk to support its dense trunk, only to lay a solid foundation, the back of the study will be handy.

Innovative like Musk

This way of learning is the basis for Musk’s continuous innovation. The application and reconstruction of knowledge are the reasons why he can innovate continuously.

I wonder if you have been asked to redesign a product. In Musk’s opinion, developing a new product is as much about learning as it needs to be from the ground up. Remember that 2007 Steve Jobs insisted that you want to re-design that iPhone it? Before this one iPhone comes out, everybody does not like the physical key on the mobile phone very much, precisely because Steve Jobs insisted to redesign, so let the iPhone’s first mobile phone is so influential.

With the birth of the Tesla Semi truck, Musk announced the redesign of a new truck. This is like learning, once again from the bottom, a little accumulation, and gradually enrich the product design ideas.

Not all manufacturers have the courage and daring to do such a challenge, and it is just such a rigid inertia that leads to many of the same drawbacks of the same types of goods on the market.

It is because of Musk and Steve Jobs and others dare to empty the artboard, the courage to re-design, only now has a cool iPhone and God’s Tesla car. It is precisely this made their extraordinary.

If we also want to innovate, perhaps “to wipe the original design, restart design” is not a bad idea!

This number can predict the life cycle of iPhone X

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How long can an iPhone last? How often do people upgrade their iPads? Is it true that people treat Apple’s consumer devices as “frequently updated” or “renewed every year” as often seen on the web? We all know that the life span of a single device will naturally vary from person to person, but are the lifecycles of the Apple devices we perceive from the perimeter channels as their true lifespan?

Although Apple officials have never directly responded to this question, one of the official documents, “More Answers to Apple and Environmental Responsibilities,” states explicitly: “… We estimate the useful life of the first user, the assumptions 4 years for macOS and tvOS devices and 3 years for iOS and watchOS devices … ”

In other words, from Apple’s own estimated model point of view, the product life cycle this figure conservatively estimated at 3-4 years. But how did this figure come out, whether it followed a set of existing logic, probably only Apple himself knew.

Now every three Apple devices, two are still in use

Today, Horace Dediu, Founder and Independent Analyst from Asymco, gives us a more detailed and “plausible” solution based on current The number of active devices and accumulations of Apple devices Total sales, not only estimated what he considered more convincing user satisfaction, but also ultimately estimated the actual average lifespan of Apple devices in the user community.

In the past on the iPhone word of mouth coverage, often heard is the “customer satisfaction” or “loyalty” and other relatively vague indicators, the favorable rate of 98% of the figures are not new, but the lack of visual presentation. Horace Dediu also believes that the “customer satisfaction” number is difficult to convince. Most of the respondents think that they are often “good things,” especially when the interviewee is in a state of uncertainty. This sense of self-suggestion Particularly strong – for example, we will be out of trouble for the psychological to Taobao some of the products, drip drivers and takeaway brother readily hit a five-star praise, even if the products and services are not entirely satisfactory.

Good products speak for themselves, the value of good products not only reflected in the frequency of daily use, but also will be reflected in the duration of use, which is “the number of active devices,” the more valuable reason. If “cumulative sales” represent a company’s existing performance, then “active equipment” is more likely to reflect its development prospects.

Earlier this year in early February, Apple CEO Tim Cook disclosed in the earnings conference: January 2018 Apple’s active device volume reached 1.3 billion, which is also after January 2016, Apple’s second public its own active equipment number.

Horace Dediu draws a chart based on available data, with the top curve showing the total amount of equipment sold by Apple since the second quarter of 2007, as shown by Apple’s cumulative total equipment sales as of the fourth quarter of 2017 The amount has reached 2.05 billion units. At the same time, Horace fits it to logic functions based on the number of active devices that have been disclosed at several time points, trying to plot the S-curve below to represent the amount of active devices.

As for the origin of this curve, I asked Dr. Milkshake, a Ph.D. in physics (there is a sense of killing chickens with a chopper …). The following is a more general explanation.

Logic functions were initially used as S-curves to model population growth and were later widely used for their solid theoretical foundations in social behavior. Horace Dediu chose this calculation method, also think that the logic function can well represent the growing trend of the number of active devices in Apple over the years (that is, exponential growth in the early, after reaching a certain value tends to ease), and will know a few The number of active devices in a time node is encased in this function.

He gives the formula in the original text: S ÷ (1 + EXP (1 × (to) ÷ g))

After simple processing, it is this:

Correspondingly, we can see that S in the Horace formula is L in the corresponding logical function model, which represents the saturation value of the active devices in the market. Horace predicts saturation to reach 1.8 billion by 2022;

1 / g, which corresponds to k in the logical function model, derives the slope by derivation and obtains the growth factor g = 8;

O That is, corresponding to x0 in the logical function model, the corresponding time value when S takes the middle point (900 million), that is, o = 35.

Which draws the lower curve in the figure above.

After building this function model, Horace calculates the ratio of active devices to cumulative sales devices. By the fourth quarter of 2017, that figure was around 64%, meaning that two-thirds of Apple devices are still in use today, and I find that number coincides exactly with one of the indicators released by Newzoo last year.

From Newzoo statistics last year, by the end of April 2017, 728 million of the 1.1 billion iPhone sold were still in use, at a rate of 63%. But Horace Dediu has a much broader range of data, including the iPhone, iPad, Apple Watch and Mac, and does not refer to a specific product category.

Horace Dediu’s model visually shows the number of products sold and the number of products in service compared to other data that are not clear about statistics, so that the ratio between the number of active devices and the devices sold can be derived, in a sense It can be seen that consumers in the past buying behavior of Apple’s future development prospects.

If you keep track of this ratio, you may be able to get a more reliable than the user satisfaction index.

“It’s based on user interaction with the product, not the user-fiery three-minute heat.”

In the eyes of analysts, this data is more convincing than any satisfaction survey.

Maybe your iPhone has quietly accompanied you for more than four years

Based on the two curves in the figure above, Horace Dediu further estimates that the actual average lifespan of Apple devices in the user community is about 17 quarters. The figure below shows this visually after the addition of guides on the original graph in conclusion.

The difference between the total installed capacity and the number of active devices sold can be regarded as the number of devices that have been “retired”. As of the fourth quarter of 2017, the difference is 750 million units, which is exactly the third quarter of 2013 Of the total amount of equipment sold.

We can easily and crudely understand that all the equipment sold before the third quarter of 2013 will have their historic mission completed in the fourth quarter of 2017. 4 years and 3 months ago, it happened to be the release date of the oldest device supported by iOS system, such as iPhone 5s and iPad mini 2, all of which were launched in 2013 and are the earliest iOS devices supported by iOS 11 .

So perhaps our Apple device does not change one year or two as we did, and instead continues to shine and heat up somewhere in the world beyond the predictions given in official documents cycle.

Product life is still an issue worth exploring, especially the “active equipment volume,” Horace Dediu said it is a breakthrough to quantify Apple’s value, based on its derived “average life of the device,” allows us Better predict the future development of Apple.

To the user’s selfishness, naturally, do not want your device is prematurely eliminated. With the price of the iPhone X breaking through the million mark, purely screen changes have long failed to attract practical user groups, especially for those old iPhones that have just experienced “battery incidents” and “durable” does not seem to work either Exactly the same as “excellent”, more difficult to talk about “I am satisfied with it.” Unless it is a physical damage caused by external factors, we will be half joking half serious that his cell phone can “fight another year.”

In such a trend, a cellphone or computer can spend more time in one’s hands, or it can be sold to a second or third user after several hands-offs. If you just want to make a phone call, talk about WeChat, about a king of glory, two or three years ago, the flagship machine can still be competent, the budget of the lower population can also be turned over from the official, free fish trading and even the rental business to find the product Good color of medieval products.

But this is clearly not a business company would like to see the replacement of the old user’s desire to lead to low sales is too weak, the cost of the huge maintenance of the old equipment routine maintenance is also a thankless thing, this point in the Android phone On the performance will be more obvious. Even if it is also fighting the iPhone 5s, many hardware and software level of the lack of only allow it to run a “flawed version of iOS 11, and freshly baked yet full of taste means iPhone X, will follow the” 4 Year and three months “this life cycle?

Perhaps, only when we re-phone as a purely communication tool, it will no longer tangle the life of this matter.

The 100th anniversary of the Spanish flu: what happened to humans and what has changed?

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World War II ended in the atomic bomb, World War I ended in the flu virus.

Between 1918 and 1920, at the end of the First World War and two years after the war, a pandemic called “Spanish flu” swept across the Americas, Europe, Asia and even Eskimos, capturing The lives of 50 to 100 million people in the world reached 5% of the world population at that time. The number of people it knocked down far exceeded the number of war casualties.

Even more mysterious and frightening is that the disease likes to attack young people, and in a few short days, those strong bodies will fall painfully. Later, some researchers think that the flu may bring war on the population Reducing one of the reasons for the early end of World War I.

American hospital during the pandemic

Just as its arrival is unknown, its disappearance is not due to the valor of human beings. The flu in Spain is a “plague” that has been said by many people in history. From time to time people are reminded of the catastrophic consequences of the plague, and thinking is not without merit.

As the famous American journalist “The Great Influenza: Epic of the Deadliest Plague in History” published by the American historian John M. Barry in 2004 said: The 1918 pandemic was not a simple one about destruction, death and despair Is not just a story of how one society is struggling with the disasters that nature imposes on human society. It is also a story about science and exploration, a story about how people should change their way of thinking, one about how people should think calmly and then make a bold choice and act in an environment of total disarray rather than unnecessarily long hours Argue the story.

The end of December 2017, high-intensity seasonal flu broke out throughout the country. In the 52nd week, the number of flu cases in Beijing increased by 81.44% within one week and the number of flu cases in the country exceeded 120,000. In Beijing, Shanghai, Zhejiang and Tianjin, emergency departments of major hospitals in China were full, and the number of people infected with 0-4 and 25-59 infections increased dramatically. In the first week of 2018, 9,000 flu cases were reported in Beijing, 19 times more than last year.

In the United States, the worst flu in a decade also claimed the lives of 63 children in February, with 4.5 million people in the United Kingdom reporting the symptoms in January. In 2018, it became the worst winter in the world since the outbreak of the 1968 influenza in Hong Kong.

Vaccination failure, pediatric halt, out-of-stock “cure”, the school became a flu-hit areas, a series of epidemics and forewarning, isolation, emergency alert … … 100 years later, in the face of a sudden epidemic, human There seems to be no difference between panic and helplessness.

There is no reason why as the spring of 2018 approached, the number of cases of influenza that had entered an absolute peak began to decline and returned to its conventional level by the end of February. The flu virus, like every eruption in the past 100 years, goes away again.

At this moment, we have reviewed the pandemic that we had 100 years ago. It is exactly what we want to see and what we can change before the disease.

twenty four

War, a huge petri dish

“Spanish flu” does not originate in Spain.

In fact, it came to Europe only two months after the outbreak. Here the flu came to Italy from France and soon spread to Britain, Germany, Denmark and Spain.

That was the war that started in 1918 in the Balkans, which lasted for four years. Every newspaper in the warring states during the wartime reported on the army and the government with great reports – except for the neutral country of Spain. Here, the maximum warning and coverage of the flu pandemic that afflicted 800 million people, including King Alfonso XIII, was obtained.

In this way, the news war control gave the flu a name. This is only the smallest of the effects of the war on the Spanish flu.

In January 1918, the United States joined the war as a full-fledged country for just one year. For this full-fledged war, the U.S. military increased from tens of thousands before the war to millions in just three months. Hundreds of thousands of soldiers live in temporary shelters – they come from completely different states and regions, with radically different disease susceptibilities – many years after public health experts rate them, millions of young people gather at barracks Extreme tension and frequent contact with mixed populations mean an increase in the geometric progression of the epidemic.

In addition to the massive population and pathogenic aggression, the war also provided the best justification for population migration, together with the extreme war environment and harsh medical conditions, as the best breeding ground for the deadly infectious disease of 1918.

In February 1918, the flu came

By the end of February 1918, several young men were recruited from Haskell County, Kansas, where the “flu” epidemic was spreading. They arrived at the Foster Barracks on 2 March. Two days later, the Force Hospital began receiving the first batch of influenza soldiers and, within three weeks, 1,100 seriously ill patients from Foster Hospital were admitted to hospital. On 18 March, as many as 10% of the fledgling outbreaks occurred in the large cities of 30 neighboring military bases in the country, as 10% of the soldiers in Forrester’s camp in Frisian, Georgia, whose forces were mobilized with Foston.

The epidemic quickly spread to the other side of the earth. The day after the U.S. troops landed in Brest, Europe, the French Navy Command suddenly interrupted the attack. By the end of April, the epidemic went to Italy with French soldiers and then to British Army troops. In May, the outbreak of the Second Army in the UK deteriorated. One artillery brigade fell by 1/3 in 48 hours.

The first wave of influenza outbreak of the United States hospital

This is the first outbreak of the Spanish flu. The disease was spread to Spain, Greece, Germany and Denmark and arrived in Mumbai and Shanghai with a transport vessel in early June, but after 4 months, most of those infected recovered quickly and soldiers quickly returned to battle.

Everything is getting better, before the flu outbreak seems to be just an episode of the war. Until July 1918.

The spread of the pandemic worldwide

A serious flu broke out on a ship sailing to New York from France and had to temporarily stop in Halifax, Canada, due to an overwhelming number of sick sailors, awaiting seafarers regained their strength; a sudden outbreak in a small French military base , Took 5% of French recruits; and in July, a troop hospital was packed up with an outbreak of high-mortality influenza in a U.S.-backed contingent of Pike camp in Arkansas.

One by one, cases appeared one after another in the world. The second wave of epidemics was like the water in the pot to be boiled, finally bringing a fatal blow. Within a month, it has spread across all continents except Oceania.

Immediately more violent second wave

In Devon’s barracks in northern Boston, 345 people were diagnosed with pneumonia on 19 September alone, accounting for 19.5% of the entire barracks. In Philadelphia, there were streets full of white Silk cloth, stacked bodies are nowhere to be placed, and parents can only place their sons buried in macaroni’s boxes; Canada’s Labrador, frozen in the cold with sheets; Europe, Germany ordinary people The death rate of 27.3% in Africa, the Gambia, the flu erased the traces of most villages; 10% of Guam in Japan died of flu in Delhi, India, some of the train leaving the station when the car is still alive, Arrived when the body is full …

Blood everywhere – in a letter written to colleagues by the U.S. military chief Gerst, he described them as beginning to look like the common cold, but when they were taken to the hospital, their condition deteriorated rapidly to unheard-of malignancy Pneumonia, two hours after admission, their cheekbones appear reddish brown spots, a few hours later, the patient significantly cyanosis, they face bruising, can not distinguish between white or black. … El town opened a special train for the delivery of coffins in short supply. ”

In less than two months, the rate of death that climbed too fast has been boring. In the Michigan barracks, the dead were put into body bags without a complete break, and on the third day of the Philadelphia procession, 117 people were killed in the city, double the number on the fourth day. Sick people lying in bed with their bodies at home and people digging graves have got sick, they refuse to bury the bodies of these flu patients. Many of the dead were horrified with bleeding in their ears and nose.

October 1918 New York street

Infection in wartime hospitals

The second wave of influenza outbreak in Spain is the longest, the largest and the highest in the entire flu pandemic. In October 1918 alone, 200,000 Americans were killed by the flu, and the average life expectancy of Americans in 1918 was therefore 12 years less than usual.

The third wave of flu did not end until 1920

The spring of 1919, the war has ended more than two months. The third wave of influenza flu was welcomed by those lucky enough who survived the war and disease as they were no longer subject to censorship and this was the period when the flu was most widely reported. People pick up the pen in your hand and write the first word: fear.

Allegedly, the flu was a comeback of the ancient medieval “black death,” and a Sydney newspaper did not hesitate to use the “doomsday plague” to address the flu. When childhood survivors of flu experience writing memoirs as adults, “Black Death” has become their most direct memory.

Street masked soldiers

Warning sign about pandemic isolated

Fear did not allow volunteers to enter the families of those who were seriously ill. In the end, many patients even starved to death. Nurses did not even dare to answer the phone numbers of the solicitors, lest the disease would spread through cables. In the midst of having to go out, people wear masks and do not go too far to talk as far as possible. “It’s fear, not the disease itself – that smashes society.”

In February 1919, the number of deaths from the flu in Paris was 2,676, compared to 1,517 in March. In fact, during the four months after the postwar Paris Peace Conference, the three giants of France, the United States and Britain participating in the conference have all been infected with the flu to varying degrees. It is even regarded as a stroke after President Wilson’s return to the United States One of the incentives.

The long third wave of flu lasts until the spring of 1920. At this time, the number of unconventional deaths in 1.8 billion people worldwide has exceeded 5%.

People are gradually convinced that the disease comes from the outside world

In 1918 when pathology and public health were still in their infancy, it was hard to get accurate judgment of the epidemic, even through public media messages.

At the time, the modern medical research in the United States was just beginning. Just decades before World War I, modern medicine was no different from two thousand years ago. Hippocrates, 460 BC, presented a medical approach to medical practice through observation. His “temperament and body fluid theory” was later refined by Gallon, a Roman physician, to conclude that “the disease is the result of an imbalance in the body, Need to adjust their balance, you can successfully treat the disease. ” It ruled Western medicine for nearly 1500 years, providing a powerful basis for “bleeding therapy”, “homeopathy” and the use of potent laxatives.

Paintings “Medieval medicine”, the picture center is Galen

But by the end of the nineteenth century medical education began to change in Europe, and medicine was gradually identified as a science that was experimentally explored rather than relied on logic and observation. Researchers began to examine medicine in a modern science-like way for 2000 The old thesis collapsed in just 300 years.

After the French Revolution, the French physician Bishu started to dissect the organs and used stethoscopes and thermometers. Dr. Louise and his colleagues conducted a comparative study of organs and healthy organs in the study of pathological anatomy and gradually formed a new concept of disease: disease Is a kind of intruding into the substantive part of the human body, it has its own characteristics, and the objective existence.

Numerical measurement systems such as thermometers and sphygmomanometers have also introduced mathematical logic into the medical field. In the 1840s, as an entirely new subject of epidemiology, the British physician John Snow made a detailed observation of the outbreak of cholera in Westminster, London, in his paper “The Study of Cholera Transmission Methods” He applied the statistics to the essay, suggesting that the spread of cholera did not originate from dirty air, but rather from serious water pollution.

At the same time, the statement that the disease originates outside the body has also been accepted by the microbiology community.

Robert Koch in the mirror found Bacillus anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis

As a new achromatic lens became a standard feature for German doctors, microbiologists gradually found larger parasites under the microscope. After Virgins and Bernard Co-founded Cytopathology in 1849, human awareness of the disease was advanced To the cellular level. A large number of laboratories for exploration and research appeared in Europe. In 1840, the German microbiologist Henler published the article “On Poisoning and Infectious Diseases”, which laid the basic conditions for the etiological relationship between microorganisms and diseases. At this time, the etiology and emerging Microbiology finally solved the doubts that plagued medicine for twenty centuries, namely, “What exactly is contagion?”

But they still know nothing about the virus

But in 1918, the culprit – the virus – had not yet entered the researcher’s field of vision. It was not until more than 10 years later that the diagnosis of influenza caused by the virus was made public.

Today, as long as people with high school biology education know that viruses and bacteria are different, it is a life-form that does not require metabolism and has a copy-only function. At the heart of the virus is a segment of the gene that invades cells through various forms, modifies host genes and replicates them into thousands of new virus individuals. Different forms of influenza virus have different effects on the human body, of which Influenza A virus causes epidemic diseases in the region or the world.

H1N1 flu virus profile

Influenza virus mainly attacks the respiratory system. When the cells are invaded, the human immune system will respond quickly to it. The influenza virus bypasses the recognition of the immune system by means of “antigen drift” and “antigen drift” And bring popularity – many medical history researchers believe that several of the 15th and 16th centuries of the pandemic is actually a flu, after the beginning of modern human transport, the epidemic occurred in the 18th century, 6 occurred in the 19th century 4 times.

People who were obsessed with finding pathogens at the time did not know these. Pathologists represented by Parker, a New York City lab director and bacteriologist Lewis, have gradually attributed influenza to bacteria called Haemophilus influenzae, after anatomy and pathogen support.

This is a microorganism found in 1892 that is prevalent in the respiratory system of flu patients and is therefore considered by the Finder Dr. Phoebe as the causative agent of the flu. (Later studies have shown that it actually incurred bacterial pneumonia)

Haemophilus influenzae

Within two years of the flu, in dozens of laboratories in the United States and Europe, microbiologists began to isolate the bacteria in various ways from both the patient and the dead. Separation and cultivation process is very difficult, they can still find fault in the face of failure. Throughout October, antisera and influenza vaccines from Philadelphia, New York and Chicago were distributed nationwide, and millions of people were used by a massive vaccine, until Haemophilus influenzae has not yet been able to follow conventional bacteriology Principles are separated and nurtured.

Diseases and wars bring depression

The mystery of the flu has disappeared, and the impact it has had is much more than that.

Pandemic flu deaths in Europe and the United States in 1918 and 1919

Influenza sequelae and complications worldwide are documented. Heart disease and meningitis caused by the flu have dominated medical records for the next few years.

The bereavement pain brought by the war and the flu filled the literary works at that time. Later researchers believe that the depression of the will of the people and the nihilistic blend of betrayal and misery in the 1920s are now related to the flu. The bloody scenes on the fronts of World War I were restored by the flu around each and every one. The death of neighbors and loved ones, the failure of all kinds of epidemic prevention and treatment methods, all make people’s belief in science and religion fall into nothingness.

Three victims of the flu

In 1923, Dewey published an article in The New Republic, “It is questionable whether people are as widespread as they are today, and the concern with the cure and the savior is to prove the extent to which the world is seriously ill.”

During the invasion, many local governments were unable to dominate the overall situation, but the powerful social mobilization necessary for epidemic prevention and crisis management still enhanced people’s reliance on the central government.

The national public health system is shaping

There are also good aspects. As a result of this flu, humankind has begun to establish an international health cooperation program on a global scale. Epidemiological and medical statistics have become mainstream methodologies in public health research.

From Philadelphia to New Mexico, a completely new public health service was established, a large number of temporary hospitals were converted to permanent hospitals and the formal establishment of the modern medical system as part of the social fabric was fixed.

Chicago City Nurses Job Advertisements

Public health governance in the United States is inextricably linked to rapid urbanization in the late 19th century. Cross-regional travel with densely populated and susceptible populations, coupled with the rapid deterioration of urban sanitation, has created an excellent environment for the rapid spread of infectious diseases.

It was not until the late 1860s that Washington’s streets were full of residents’ dumping trash, rats and cockroaches even in the White House. Under such circumstances, the epidemic of the two epidemics in the late 18th and early 19th centuries has directly turned into an opportunity for early public health governance in the United States.

The first health commission in the United States was set up in New York in 1798 to control the plague after its pandemic of yellow fever. For the first time in 1804, the government set up a full-time health inspector in the densely populated city, under the leadership of the police station. Later, some major cities such as Boston and Philadelphia gradually established specialized health inspection systems. In addition to supervising sanitation, they are also responsible for quarantining and isolating infectious diseases. By the eve of the Civil War, many state health committees had established a special infectious disease registration and reporting system and started health promotion and vaccination against smallpox.

In 1878, as the industrial development and population increased, the sanitation situation in the United States deteriorated again. To this end, the Parliament passed a special “National Quarantine Law” to control infectious diseases. The quarantine law greatly strengthened the quarantine authority of the U.S. public health and naval hospital services, later the U.S. Public Health Bureau. When the Yellow Fever was once again erupted in New Orleans in 1905, the agency was empowered to regulate interstate transportation of sera, vaccines and other items.

By 1900, most of the health councils in the country had the function of strengthening legal supervision and prevention of infectious diseases. Between 1915 and 1920, these evolving health and epidemic prevention agencies were mixed and lacked standardization rules. Most of those mature public health programs deal with the federal government and the state government with great care. In small cities with a population of less than 25,000, the work of the health sector is often only premature for quarantine and chemical fumigation of sexually transmitted infections means.

Pandemic doctor and quarantine officer

At the beginning of the flu pandemic, the health minister in La Crosse, Wisconsin, pointed out the issue of standardization in the field of public health. After the flu, the public health agencies in the United States have been remarkably organized. People are also slowly realizing that public health matters require experts to answer their questions. Urban, rural and railway health systems began to unify standards for water, milk and wastewater treatment and the state government collected a uniform report of the disease.

Many permanent public health agencies are established and retained in the flu. For example, New Haven specifically for the Ministry of Health had a permanent transformation. They have reorganized school-level health screening companies and have dramatically increased the budget for child health services; a Massachusetts-based town no longer relies on the sanitation facilities around them and the temporary emergency hospital established in the flu has become a permanent establishment.

Influenza, universal health education has been popular. Education and publicity in the health sector is a national or even a worldwide improvement. In big cities such as New York and Los Angeles, the bus is tagged with spitting and death. People are starting to believe that bad health habits can really cause illness. Urban cleaning and personal cleaning have become the mainstream of social education.

Prevention and treatment of influenza posters

Because of the flu, the Department of Public Health gained new credibility and authority. Also in Massachusetts, many people directly support the Ministry of Health as the general manager and solve the social and medical problems in the state. People also demand that the federal government control public health on the grounds of flu. Some even propose that doctors and nurses should all be classified under the Central People’s Government. A Post Journal in the city of Rochester pointed out that it is necessary to classify the whole country like Britain and France 2-3 districts for medical supervision.

People have also learned a few lessons from the flu, such as the need to create a backup force for the Department of Health. After October 1918, a large number of health officials participating in quarantine and preaching fell one after another, and people began to realize many problems in the construction of the health system. On October 27, a bill establishing a reserve force for the Department of Health was passed by the National Assembly, although it did not make much sense at the time of the flu epidemic, but this normative procedure still plays a role in the ensuing public health emergencies .

Since then, similar attention to public health has re-emerged and until the official implementation of the Roosevelt New Deal Social Security Act in 1935.

In the history of public health in the United States, scholars do not always mention the flu. The post-World War II “New History” research trend, in turn, linked the history of public health to social change and personal life, the Spanish flu that killed nearly 100 million people is so hidden in innumerable cholera, yellow fever and plagues.

How to have the ability to eliminate a disease?

If the mutation and epidemic of the virus is just an accident, then when will the new round of epidemic come? What has our community prepared for this?

In the “post-Hispanic flu” years, these problems continue to plague people. In particular, the legacy of the Spanish flu has become even greater after the three massive flu attacks of the 20th century. How to get the attention of a decision-maker to a disease often depends not only on the number of victims and on the pressure of death but also on socio-political behavior, the cooperation of large corporations, research institutes and nonprofit organizations.

Take the “One dime Campaign” After the World War Two Greatly Preventing Poliomyelitis in the United States as an Example. In 1921, President Roosevelt became infected with the polio virus after a swim. Sitting in a wheelchair, he soon became the most intuitive advocate of the disease.

Roosevelt bad behavior

In the meantime, the post-war high fertility rate has also brought about an increase in the number of cases of poliomyelitis. In 1946, there were 25,000 reported cases nationwide and 58,000 in 1952.

Statistically, the probability of serious poliomyelitis is low, the probability of permanent paralysis is less, and the probability of lethality is negligible. However, the U.S. government quickly advocated the National Polio Foundation, which was established in 1938, and soon became a disease most concerned about by Americans. Just pick up a magazine, people will see the title: “For Parents: Poliomyelitis Tips,” “How can you help polio?”

Resistant to polio posters

Elvis also joined the “dime movement”

In 1934, American physician Charles Armstrong passed the polio virus to the monkeys and mice in the laboratory. In 1936, Maurice Brody, a research assistant at New York University, finally succeeded in using the spinal cord of the monkey as a viral growth environment to make a polio vaccine.

Next you need to test the effectiveness of this vaccine. In the vaccine testing phase, Brody began to use himself and a number of helpers as subjects, the test results are quite good. Thus, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the inactivated vaccine, the Foundation started a trial of the Salk vaccine, relying on a myriad of dedicated volunteers centered on protecting children and their parents – the largest public health trial in history .

Throughout 1954, millions of American parents were persuaded to get their children involved in the experiment, and 1.3 million children were injected with the vaccine under test.

Children / pictures after vaccination is completed by Chicago Tribune

The country is mobilized. The Foundation held a two-day workshop in 211 cities across the country. Doctors and nurses receive simple training in the clinical use of vaccines; school leaders and teachers learn how to record data, contact parents, and phone numbers to report on the vaccine are ringing in the vaccine research office at the University of Michigan. In the end, 95% of the 600,000 children received all three injections, attesting to the value of intensive national advocacy and community-based efforts.

The children soon developed an allergic reaction, hundreds of whom died of accidents and infections. However, the results of the final test are encouraging. Studies show that the vaccine is effective in preventing paralytic poliomyelitis by 80% -90%.

A well-functioning system

Privately funded medical research also plays a role. In Europe, governments, universities and the rich are well-known for donating medical research. After diphtheria antitoxin was discovered in 1894, foreigners in America such as the rich and the private sector began to focus on the medical field.

In 1901, Rockefeller’s grandson died of a scarlet fever in Chicago. In the same year, the privately-funded Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research was established. The institute with 75 independent laboratories provided scientists with a perfect environment for collaboration. Since its inception, the Rockefeller Institute of Medicine has made medicine itself an independent field where scientists study infectious diseases and also lead researchers from the clinical world.

Six years after the birth of the institute, Simon Flechner, a scientist at the Institute, invented the serum therapy for bacterial meningitis, making himself and the institute famous.

More important than the fame is what the research institutes represent. Although none of the laboratories successfully identified the flu or isolated the so-called “Pf bacillus” in the flu, the concerted efforts of government, scientists and nonprofit organizations gave the later epidemic prevention a relatively well-functioning system.

Rockefeller Institute of Medicine

However, these agencies and behaviors devoted to public health services still often lead to dissatisfaction and doubt.

Just as Xiaotangshan Hospital, which set the world record for building speed records, in 2003, due to the rapid spread of the SARS epidemic, the Beijing municipal government urgently built a field infectious disease hospital with 508 wards and 1,000 beds in 8 days. It treated a total of 680 SARS patients in 51 days, most of whom were discharged. By 2010, the hospital, which is called Silent Hill in China, was announced to be demolished.

To what extent is the public’s awareness of the disease affected by a strong government? Does the system of public health care and health necessarily imply the transfer of individual rights? What factors can determine the ability of a society or country to fight the disease? Every large-scale epidemic will leave far-reaching topics for discussion.

The flu has triggered people’s thinking about methodologies

John M. Barry pointed out in “The Flu: Epic of the Deadliest Plague in History,” that the 1918 pandemic led people to think “two of the most important issues in science,” “What can I know?” And “I How do you know?

In his book, he wrote, “In fact, both science and religion have gone their separate ways in the first question of what can be learned. Religion – in a way that philosophy – thinks it can know Or at least deal with the “why” issue.

The question of “why” is too esoteric for science. Science considers itself to be able to study how things happen.

When science is not merely devoted to “what can I know”, but more importantly to changing its approach to research and to changing the answer to “How I Know”, the revolution in modern science, and especially in modern medicine, begins. ”

This is the methodological significance. In a narrow scientific field, the answer to “How do I know?” Determines whether one is confronted with scientific methods of operation – observation, logical deduction, or hands-on experimentation.

He also believes that the exploration of methods not only involves academic discussion, but also affects a society’s own management tools and even its social structure and its citizens’ way of life.

If a society believes itself to hold the truth and does not need to doubt its own beliefs, it will be easier for the community to stick to its rigid decrees and less likely to change. But if it leaves room for questioning the truth, it is more likely to become free and open.

“Pandemic: Epic of the Most Deadly Plague in History” cover

In the 1918 flu, people faced and accepted natural tyranny, facing the fear of death, while also suffering the harm caused by lies and ignorance. “It is impossible to estimate how many people died from the propaganda machine created by Wilson, There is also no direct sales how many young people because of the authority of the ‘flu’ guarantee in vain. We only know that in just four years the war killed 35 million people worldwide and the number of deaths due to communicable diseases surpassed the war.

Time went back to the Paris Peace Conference in the spring of 1919, and later the history of war and medical history even blamed the pandemic for the ultimately unsatisfactory peace talks. They would rather find evidence that the big three leading negotiators were caught in the confusion caused by the flu or could not explain why the peace talks originally planned for a permanent peace in the world became a breeding ground for the division of power and the retaliation for war.

In any case, World War I and the flu together imprinted “death” in people’s minds, which planted the seeds for the “evil” -battered war two decades later.

The pictures and images from the PBS documentary “American.Experience.Influenza.1918”




Apple Watch amazing sales, but perhaps the last smart watch “fig leaf”

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Smart watches after a few years before the market peak, so far now fell to the bottom, it is better to say that the market has returned to the rational stage, which is the stage the industry must go through.

According to a recent IDC survey, Apple Watch shipped 8 million units in the fourth quarter of 2017 as the highest-selling smartwatch for the period and year. In 2017, the data throughout the year, Apple Watch shipments in 2017 is as high as 17.7 million.

However, after all, “a flower alone is not a spring,” Apple Watch’s large sales does not mean that the entire smart watch market is hot, the smart watch market as a whole has also been declining. In addition to the Apple Watch, sales of other smart watch makers, including Samsung, Garmin, Fossil and others, are just 15.6 million. So why smart watch manufacturers began to decline? Why Apple Watch survived?

Die-hard powder and brand effect blessing, Apple Watch “shelf life” to be extended

In recent years, under the trend of this wave, smart watch manufacturers have mushroomed, and in the early days of smart watches, it was even predicted to be the next generation of smart phones. However, the good news is not long, smart watches soon began a wide range of “ebb tide,” as other smart hardware in general, did not reach the user’s expectations, and the user’s fresh feeling is bound to have a shelf life, time is over, It is winter, and this is mainly due to the following two reasons:

First, the tasteless, not just needed. Many users have this feeling, spirited to buy smart watches, adjust all the settings, push, but in the end, it is reduced to a full charge of the “traditional watch.” The so-called smart and not more practical, nor imagined so fun. And Chinese consumers’ family environment, living habits and smart watches formed a strong contrast, the scene elements are not sufficient, at least for the moment it is not just needed.

At present, the function of smart watch roughly includes timing, information reminder, health monitoring, weather push and news subscription push. The replaceability of these functions is very strong. And now the public free wifi did not materialize, most of the functions of the smart watch will not be available once the smart watch is disconnected from the Internet. , But also for the general public, the acceptance of intelligent hardware is not high, however, too many players chased under the outlet can only be reduced to bubbles in the end.

Second, the connection property is weak. All-Internet era, intelligent hardware manufacturers outline a smart blueprint for life. In fact, many users do not have too many smart appliances or other devices to connect to at home. Only when there are enough smart devices in the home will all sense of experience of all things come true. Even if there are enough smart appliances, different brands can achieve the interconnection between the current is still a problem to be solved.

As a result, it is doomed smart watch has obvious “shelf life”, once the shelf life is over, to meet the smart watch can only be the first year of winter like VR. So why is Apple Watch survived? In my opinion, this should benefit from Apple’s own brand effect and diehard powder blessing round.

The talented “New Yorker” Gladwell, “Tipping Point,” focuses on how to get the product out of fashion, noting that the law of adhesion does not change the intrinsic quality of information, Make some minor changes, leading to popularity.

Many of the current brands on the market are inherently adhesive or brand-name. Apple’s brand adhesion is obvious that is innovative. It is precisely because this makes Apple has a large number of around the world with “fruit powder.” Similar to it and have millet, cost-effective brand adhesion accumulated a lot of “rice noodles.”

Although since the death of Steve Jobs, Apple’s brand innovation is gradually weakening the adhesion, which is more evident in the smart machine reaction, Apple is no longer in the eyes of the people that can change the world’s enterprises. After all, “thin dead camel than big horse,” Apple’s brand effect and loyal fruit powder support the sales of smart watches, which other smart watch manufacturers do not have the conditions.

Tablet PC with the current situation is similar to the smart watch, the global trend of flat panel seems to be a foregone conclusion, ipaid sales, though it is also continuing to decline, but still maintain a certain level of shipments, which is the value of brand adhesion.

In fact, the smart watch itself is not a fake demand, but has not yet reached its point in time of eruption, but in this period it will go through a long period of pain, very naturally can be sub-cake, quite can only act as an industry The “martyrs”, and hold on the key lies in the idea of ​​another product, so that smart watches can get the user’s favorite.

Smart Watch “Station Study”: election on the “big brother” is very important

In the above, we discussed the reason why many smart watches continued to decline in sales. To sum up, in fact, some smart watch manufacturers are actually making mistakes in positioning and perception, and smart watches are wrong and wrong “Big Brother”, although the general trend of smart upgrades is inevitable, but for now, smart watches are intelligent hardware, smart watches should not be close to smart machines, but should choose to move closer to traditional watches, based on traditional watches Instead of jumping directly to the “smart society” blueprint for product design.

From the design point of view, the watch has become a key element for many people. However, almost all the smart watches design ideas follow the inertia of smart phones thinking, is designed to be square, the user does not pay the bill is naturally deserved.

But smartwatches, in any case, do nothing to experiencing the experience of a smart phone, is a pain point that can not be changed, so it is somewhat exaggerated to see it as the next smart phone-like product. After all, the screen is limited, the use of the scene is limited, but the standard traditional watches, smart watches can work hard in the design, this is to make up, and for most people, the watch is just accessories, to look good, identity Symbol, if on this basis, then equipped with intelligence, it would be even more icing on the cake.

From the crowd, the biggest target audience for smart watches should be middle-class consumers who want a decent watch that can be worn on a variety of occasions but do not want to buy expensive premium watches. Watches are serious commodities with extreme price differentials, a watch that can be worn on any occasion, and the price is quite expensive for most middle class. However, having a decent watch, like having decent suits, is almost a rigid requirement for the middle class, provided the watch is not unaffordable. Well, there is a huge amount of opportunities.

First of all, the price of smart watches will be much lower than a decent traditional watch. Hundreds of dollars, if you buy a toy, it is quite expensive, but if you buy a piece of any occasion can not be discounted, or even to reflect their own sense of fashion / technology sense of the watch, it is very cheap.

Second, a huge difference between smartwatches and traditional watches is that smartwatches can and must be iterated. Traditional high-level watches, the basic buy is to be long-term use. Unless the wealth / identity explosion rises or hobbies in the future, the middle class people will not basically change their minds at will. The smart watch is not, even if the cycle is longer, it will certainly form an iteration, and after a period of time, consumers will abandon the old purchase of new products, new iterations of intelligent products to ensure its market saturation.

A brief review of the watch for centuries history of development, we will find, whether it is the impact of quartz watch on the mechanical watch that year, or now the “smart watch” represented by Apple Watch impact on the quartz watch and mechanical watch , Mechanical watches are forever handed down for their unique user value, this irreplaceable value is not how powerful watches, but contains the movement of the pointer under the history, technology and wealth symbol.

Although currently on the market noisy smart watches and love the table did not win the hearts and minds of people, but hope that the future smart watches do not become a cell phone companion again picked up through the 500-year-old beauty of the pointer in the history and technology , To find a good balance between the continuation of the traditional watch pointer appearance and battery life, smart wristbands capture the core intelligence to become personal data detection and processing center, flexible adaptation to the various life and work scenarios , Embrace the future with smart technology, and extend the classic with the beauty of pointers.

In short, in my opinion, smart watches and traditional watches there is no obvious exclusion relationship, but should be more and more smart watches fashion, fashion watches more and more intelligent, the integration of the two is the general trend.

Therefore, for smart watch manufacturers, from design to function, should first learn from traditional watches, because this product itself should be an upgrade to the traditional watch, to the current characteristics of the user-based product design, rather than to Future imagination as the basis, can not “eat a fat one,” steady and steady fight is king, after all, the user’s acceptance also requires a process.

Target subdivision scenarios: sports, health, children, or best incremental factor

From the current point of view, the development of smart watches does not seem optimistic, but in my opinion, the emergence of this situation is actually unexpected things.

After all, with the vents often go hand in hand is the bubble, the concept of intelligent hardware hot, led a wave of consumer tide, the smart watch market quickly go hot, attracted some impulse consumer groups, after years of precipitation, bubble break, Powder cooling is also normal. In front of us to learn traditional watches is to solve the current smart watch manufacturers a solution to the plight of ideas. In addition, although the environment remains to be explored, it can not be concluded that there is no market for smart watches. Under the long-tail effect, many users still have a soft spot for their watches. However, The amount is limited, in order to expand the user base, smart watches should make an issue in the vertical scene to expand the crowd.

In the traditional economy, the single purchase behavior mostly points to the use value. Consumers buy because they need rather than buy. In the long-tail economy, random consumption and sudden consumption increase greatly. In the mainstream target group How to tap the vertical scene has become the key to breaking the industry.

In the author’s opinion, want to expand the user base, mainly around two aspects to make a fuss: The first scene is that there is no smart machine or smart machine can not replace the scene, the second scene is competing with competing products to snatch users, such as smart hand Ring and other wearable smart devices.

According to relevant information, at present, smart watches and smart bracelets occupy a total proportion of more than 90% of the wearable device product form. The mainstream smart watch functions are generally concentrated in the telephone answering, event reminders, interactive dual-screen, data services. The smart bracelet is mainly based on health, which includes fitness jogging, sleep detection, heart rate measurement and other ancillary functions. However, these functional watches are also available. It is a wise choice to rejuvenate the smartwatches by drawing on the function of the bracelet to reap the target audience of smart wearable products and smart bracelets.

In the above, I mentioned, smart watches with the big brother is very important, do not compare with the smart machine, do not substitute, the screen is limited, the arm will never be the thigh, to do intelligent machines complement each other, intelligent machine versatility, But it is not a gnarling, running in this vertical scene, and can not play too much value, professional speaking friends, preferring watches rather than cell phones, although the handset is not as good as portable, smartwatches can be other Give users more experience.

Then health. Mobile medical, health field. This direction is a brand new blue ocean. With people’s emphasis on health, the market prospect in this area is extremely vast. If this wearable device can really achieve the function of detecting human health in many aspects, then this wearable will be the second one after the mobile phone , Another personal electronic product with the highest penetration rate. Smart watches and smart bracelets, there is a direct competitive relationship, in terms of health, smart watches function to spike smart bracelets, snatch more markets.

Surveillance fitness, physical data, not for the doctor to see, but to allow users to master, walk 10,000 steps today? Climbed several floors, etc., more is an incentive mechanism. Like a mobile phone installed nike running, you can count the run mileage, plus some less perfect social function, running enthusiasm has been improved, in fact, those data are not accurate, but running, lonely movement, But I need people to know that I am alone.

In modern society, health is mentioned a very important degree, the monitoring of smart watches is not scientific and meticulous analysis, but rather the record and a simple analysis, play the role of supervision and supervision, from this perspective, the future of smart watches is great of.

Finally, in the children’s market, the smart watch market can still spike smartphones. After all, premature contact with smartphones is not a good thing for kids, and it is easy to indulge in the internet. Smart watches, as emasculated smartphones, can be very good Fill the phone gap. In addition, children as vulnerable groups in society, smart watches can be anti-lost. Smart watches on the market, in addition to the basic GPS positioning, a key for help, electronic fence, remote listening, health management and other functions are indispensable to the protection of children’s safety, complete anti-lost function allows parents and children in the face of There are more than one solution to danger and more insurance.

This shows that smart watches after the peak market a few years ago, so far now fell to the bottom, it is better to say that the market has returned to the rational stage, which is the stage the industry must go through. Finding a suitable market position and targeting subdivision scenarios will be the main theme of future industry development. It is also the basis and premise for players in the industry to safely pass the “painful period” and reap future market dividends.


Where do the magnetic fields that shape the universe come from?

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The power that shapes our universe is not solely gravity. The magnetic field that has long been forgotten may have played an important role in it. Image Source: “New Scientist”

(Compilation / Shea) Whenever it comes to the universe, gravity does its part. It allows our feet to stand firmly on the ground, and it shapes our universe. It causes the cloud of gas to collapse, forming stars and planets. It gave birth to hundreds of billions of stars in galaxies. It is also under its influence that galaxies converge into galaxy clusters and further form super-galaxy clusters. However, in this game, gravity is not the only player – there is a force between the universe, it is magnetic.

In the near vacuum universe, the magnetic field can be extended to a very long distance, even if billions of light-years of vast space between galaxts goes without saying. Of course, these fields are extremely weak. Magnets attached to the refrigerator magnetic field, filled with the Milky Way inside and outside the magnetic field, the intensity should be higher than 1 million times. This may be why magnetic fields are often overlooked in cosmology. After all, how can such trivial things affect the entire galaxy?

However, the times and perspectives are changing. True, gravity keeps the celestial bodies together, but the most crucial physical processes in cosmology and the high-energy jets emerging from stars to black holes require the participation of a magnetic field. “As a result, many of the unsolved mysteries in previous astronomy were suddenly enlightened as long as the interstellar magnetic fields were added,” said Bryan Gaensler of the University of Sydney in Australia.

The same is true for the larger-scale universe? The magnetism of galaxies and larger scales is so appealing because they may be the remains of some of the physical processes that took place shortly after the Big Bang. In addition, most of the visible matter in the universe consists of charged particles, whose motion follows the domination of magnetic fields and gravitation. This gave rise to a tempting possibility – from the very beginning of time, the magnetic field played a key role in shaping the universe.

However, before deciding on this, we also need to answer some important questions: When and how the magnetic field was formed?

We already know that magnetic fields play an important role around our planet. In 1835, the German physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss measured the Earth’s magnetic field for the first time with a magnet attached to a line. We now have a good understanding of how the Sun and the Earth produce their own magnetic fields. When the molten iron in the extragalactic core (or the plasma inside the sun) does the cutting of the magnetic field, it induces an electric current. These currents in turn create a magnetic field that complements the existing magnetic field. Thanks to this generator action, a weak “seed” magnetic field can grow into a much stronger magnetic field.

Things do not stop there. Earth’s magnetic field protects the ozone layer from damage by energetic particles so our planet will not be exposed to harmful UV rays. The magnetic field of the sun also protects us, deflecting harmful particles from outside the solar system. On a larger scale, magnetic fields can even contribute to the origins of life.

However, few people in the past expected a magnetic field in interstellar space. The first evidence came in 1949 when American astronomers John Hall and William Hiltner discovered that there was “something” that polarized the stars in their flight to us . The results show that such things are actually cosmic magnetic fields, which make the interstellar dust particles neatly arranged like tiny compass pointers. Geisler said that this is an amazing discovery.

Since then, a series of techniques have been developed to measure the magnetic fields in the Milky Way galaxy and its neighbors. In 2011, Niels Oppermann and his colleagues at the German Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics mapped the best Milky Way magnetic field distribution to date, revealing the distribution of the magnetic lines along the spiral arm of the Milky Way, It has also been confirmed that the total magnetic field strength of the Milky Way is only a few micro-gauss (1 micro-Gauss = 10-6 Gauss) – only one hundredth of a million of the Earth’s surface magnetic field.

Astronomers believe that in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way galaxy, the magnetic field will be amplified and maintained by a “generator.” With the rotation of the galaxy, the charged particles will cut the existing magnetic field, making it further enhanced. “The theory is that the galaxy was born with a much weaker magnetic field,” said astrophysicist Larry Widrow of Queen’s University in Canada. “But these weak primary magnetic fields, which are seeds for generators, are again Where did you come from?

The first magnetic field

For decades, scientists have been trying to solve the puzzle, but their instruments and equipment are not yet sufficiently sensitive to test any theory.

So, the model is endless.

One theory is that the initial magnetic field was generated by very early stars and then diffused into the interstellar medium through the onset of the wind or supernova.

Another theory is that about 100 million years after the big bang, when the first generation of galaxies was formed, the supermassive black hole at its center produced a very strong magnetic field and was then transported by its powerful jet into the intergalactic space.

A recent view is that the cosmic magnetic field may be caused by plasma fluctuations in young galaxies. As long as you have a weak magnetic field, it can be amplified by the generator effect. Therefore, the rotation and turbulence of interstellar media (gas and dust between stars) enhance the initial weak magnetic field. These processes can double the intensity of a magnetic field during a single rotation of a star or a central black hole. These time spans are insignificant compared to the age of the universe, so newborn magnetic fields can quickly reach considerable intensity.

The problem, however, is that if so, the magnetic field of distant young galaxies should be much weaker than the magnetic field of the next-generation galaxy. However, a great deal of evidence discovered by astronomy indicates that there are also micro-Gaussian intensity magnetic fields in these early galaxies. Thus, either the generator effect is stronger, or the seeds of the magnetic field formed earlier, it formed in the big bang.

Australia’s Square Kilometer Antenna Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) is used to find radio waves emitted by the electrons in a cosmic ray that move around a magnetic field line. Picture source:

The beginning of time

Widlow and his colleague at the University of Chicago in the United States, Michael Turner, put forward this idea in 1988. They argue that the original magnetic field was formed shortly after the Big Bang and later amplified by the inflationary phase of the expansion of the universe’s superluminal velocity. The large-scale galaxy structure we observed today is formed by the quantum fluctuations of energy in that period. Weidero and Turner proved that inflation can also amplify fluctuations in the electromagnetic field, so that the entire universe is filled with magnetic fields.

To make this idea work, they had to transform the Maxwell equations that describe the electromagnetic field, introducing a special kind of particle called the axion. Wedero admits: “The idea is peculiar and theoretically troublesome particle physicists.” Their calculated seed magnetic field, with a strength of 10-50 gauss – means that there must be a strong “power generation Machine “in order to amplify the magnetic field strength to what we observe today.

However, Widero and Turner’s ideas still inspire many others. “Their theory for the first time raised the idea that a magnetic field can be generated in inflation,” said Dominik Schleicher of the University of Göttingen in Germany. “It marks a cornerstone of our understanding.”

In early 2013, Leonardo Campanelli, a physicist at the University of Bari in Italy, explained how these fluctuations can form the original magnetic field without modifying the standard physics. He used mathematical techniques called renormalization. Particle physicists have long used this method to eliminate the infinity that would invalidate an equation. Campanelli said: “Nobody ever thought of using reformatting to deal with the original magnetic field.”

He got a much stronger initial magnetic field, reaching 10-12 Gauss, still less than 10-6 Gauss observed in the intergalactic space. But he said that with the formation of the first generation of stars and galaxies, this background magnetic field was enough to be magnified to today’s value.

Weidero left a deep impression on Campanelli’s essay. “If the calculations in this paper are correct, then a large-scale magnetic field will be a natural and unexpected product of inflation, without the need to make any special changes to the laws of physics.”

Others question the magnetic field that produced cosmic scales shortly after inflation or shortly thereafter. This is because the magnetic field is likely to be almost completely erased in what is called the “dark age.”

During the first 378,000 years, the temperature of the universe was too high to form atoms, only electrons, nucleons, and photons. This pot of charged particles is a great place to amplify the seed magnetic field formed during the inflationary period.

As the universe expands, it gradually cools, allowing protons to trap electrons to form neutral hydrogen atoms. With their combination, these particles release a wave of radiation to the universe – the CMB.

After that, the universe entered the dark age, because no celestial body would emit light during this period. At that time, the only source of radiation was a hydrogen atom, which emitted radio waves at a wavelength of 21 cm.

For the cosmic magnetic field, the main problem it faces is the steep drop in the number of charged particles. In the Dark Ages, there was only one free electron or proton for every 10,000 hydrogen atoms. Because the magnetic field depends on the movement of electrons or protons, some scientists believe that the seed magnetic field may be erased at this time.

The Dark Ages continued until the first light sources in the universe appeared. With the formation of stars and galaxies, they release a huge amount of radiation, stripping electrons from hydrogen atoms. This re-ionization period will last about 1 billion years, also means that the universe will then be full of magnetic and magnetic fields of electrons and protons.

We are not sure yet how the cosmic magnetic field coped with these chaotic years. However, perhaps decades after the different theories have been removed, there may soon be the answer.

Astronomers will be able to track the evolution of the magnetic field by synthesizing observations from multiple telescopes over different periods of the universe’s history. Knowing the strength of the magnetic field in the early Universe and their evolution will help us to model the origin of the magnetic field.

According to Richard Davis, an astronomer at the University of Manchester in the UK, the study of CMB’s Planck satellite may give an analysis of the universe’s magnetic field. If the primary magnetic field does exist at 378,000 years at the age of the universe, then they should leave a footprint on the CMB.

Integrated telescope

Also working with Planck scientists are the radio astronomers of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). LOFAR antennas are available in 5 European countries. Plus two astronomers in Australia with two instruments, Australia’s Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) and Murchison Large Field of View Antenna Array. They are all looking for radio-frequency synchrotron radiation: the radio waves emitted by the electrons in cosmic rays by the movement of magnetic lines.

LOFAR is specifically designed to measure long-wave radiation so it can detect weaker magnetic fields (such as the magnetic field between galaxies) and investigate how far the magnetic field can extend from the galactic disk. It can also detect magnetic fields in galaxies in the early universe.

As one of the leaders of the ASKAP Cosmic Magnetic Field project, Geisler is confident about what theories are correct. He said, “We will know the answer in two years.”

Rainer Beck of the German Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy said that if they found evidence of strong magnetic fields in the original galaxy, it would corroborate that the magnetic field started in the shockwave or plasma in young galaxies drop. However, if the original magnetic field was found near the galactic nucleus, then it would support the generator effect of early stars or early galaxies.

With the construction of one square kilometer aerial array (SKA) in Australia and South Africa, stronger observational capabilities are also on the way. The SKA, which consists of thousands of antennas, will allow scientists to study the magnetic field at 10 times today’s resolution. SKA will make its first observations in the early 1920s. It will probe the re-ionization period of the universe and search for the first generation of objects that appear in the universe. It will also be used to search the universe’s early magnetic field. “SKA will allow us to measure the intensity and polarization of radio waves with unprecedented sensitivity,” said Ethan Vishniac, an astrophysicist at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada.

Baker said that if SKA finds a strong magnetic field around the first generation of celestial bodies, the original theory of the field will be supported. This will show that the magnetic field precedes galaxy formation and may have an impact on galactic evolution. In this case, “Planck” or the next generation of CMB satellites will help its research.

A large number of telescopes are observing the long past magnetic fields in the universe in order to understand the origins of magnetic fields and their impact on the evolution of the universe. Image Source: “New Scientist”

In about 10 years, the observations of all these telescopes and satellites will redraw our universe picture. “Most of the aerodynamic numerical simulations for the evolution of galaxies ignore the magnetic field,” said Avi Loeb, an astronomer at Harvard University in the United States. “The next frontier is the inclusion of magnetic fields and cosmic rays Take a look at the effects on the galaxy. ”

Only by understanding how gravitation and magnetic fields manipulate the universe can we really understand how the universe works.

Faint magnetic field urging life

You need 10 million galaxies to draw a shopping list to the fridge door, and the magnetic field in our galaxy is so weak. But it can still affect the movement of charged particles called cosmic rays, bend their trajectories, and even bind them to the Milky Way for millions of years.

Arvind Lobs, an astronomer at Harvard University in the United States, pointed out that if there is no magnetic field, cosmic rays will fly out of the Milky Way soon after their formation. Its impact is far-reaching. “Cosmic rays are an important part of the Milky Way and they ionize the gas in the depths of the original planets, and they are also very important to the variation of organisms on Earth, and in short, they are elements of life,” he said.

Indeed, the appearance of life may be a masterpiece of magnetic field deflection of high-energy cosmic rays. These energetic particles seem to turn on chemical reactions that form sugars, amino acids, and other substances needed for life in dense gas clouds. Nevertheless, we are still not sure where the cosmic rays originated, because the magnetic fields have changed their trajectories. Lobo said that by studying the magnetic field, we will find clues about the origin of the cosmic rays and unlock the extremely important puzzle.

In the history of the largest technology mergers and acquisitions “last minute” counter-attack

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March 6, 2018, the United States Qualcomm shareholders meeting, is known as the history of the largest technology mergers and acquisitions Casey acquisition of Qualcomm case of a positive battle. However, only one day before the holding of Qualcomm shareholders ‘meeting, Qualcomm broke the probe on the morning of March 5 in the United States to accept the investigation by the U.S. Foreign Investment Commission (CFIUS). CFIUS therefore ordered Qualcomm to defer its shareholders’ Triggered the market uproar.

Figure 丨 US Foreign Investment Commission (CFIUS)

Broadcom also said it was surprised by Qualcomm’s acceptance of CFIUS just moments before the shareholders’ meeting. Qualcomm responded to the refute that Broadcom should not be surprised because Broadcom had already filed two written filings with CFIUS several weeks earlier.

This mergers and acquisitions case attention not only because of the scale, but also because the merger from November 2017 until now, both sides offensive and defensive plot along the way, almost can be called the most classic than the United States in the history of mergers and acquisitions The Barbarian at the Gate battle, whether it be the Golden Parachute or the Poison Pill strategy, can be seen in the offensive and defensive takeovers between Qualcomm and Broadcom.

However, the previous few offensive and defensive down, Qualcomm and Broadcom each other, but also did not really change the situation, the case of mergers and acquisitions actually in fact already deadlocked, leaving only one way is to face the confrontation at the Qualcomm shareholders meeting. Originally held on March 6 Qualcomm shareholders meeting, Broadcom plan is to nominate six board members, such as Broadcom can be 11 seats in the Qualcomm board to occupy a majority of the seats, and then get the lead through the acquisition.

It is noteworthy that although in early March, Qualcomm released news that as one of its top 30 shareholders Parnassus Endeavor Fund, has decided to vote for Qualcomm’s nomination of director candidates to support Qualcomm’s existing company to send . However, if the calculation of time, Qualcomm announced the news at the same time, Qualcomm has actually started at the same time also started to the United States CFIUS willingness to accept the intention of the survey.

In the past few years, most impressions of CFIUS have been at the meritorious role of Chinese companies in the acquisition of U.S. companies. The merger of many Chinese companies, from Huawei to Ziguang, to the acquisition of U.S. companies ended in a CFIUS intervention . This time, however, CFIUS’s arrow points to Broadcom, a Singapore company registered in the United States, whose assets, people and operations are major companies.

Figure 丨 CFIUS became the topic of Sino-US business transactions can not be separated

In fact, Broadcom officially submitted to Qualcomm in November 2017 before the proposed offer, a Broadcom CEO Hock Tan meeting with Trump occasions, Hock Tan has said on the spot, Broadcom headquarters will be moved from the current Singapore to the United States, In response to Trump’s U.S. priority.

However, Broadcom headquarters moved back to the United States will be in May 2018, before that Broadcom is not a U.S. company, the acquisition of Qualcomm’s proposal will have to be CFIUS’s review.

The CFIUS received Qualcomm said it was willing to accept the investigation, asked Qualcomm to be scheduled for March 6, the shareholders meeting to be delayed by one month, the next month’s survey will focus on rival Broadcom, this investigation will be up to 1420 Whether the $ 800 million acquisition of a high price would threaten the national security of the United States.

Figure 丨 Qualcomm is located in San Diego’s headquarters

This move can be described as very abnormal, and even the news that as early as the two companies began to discuss the acquisition of the joint venture, the United States Foreign Investment Committee has maintained its concern and intervention. The political high-pressured air, which was suddenly raised by the incident, also started to spread everywhere. There was a more rigorous examination of Broadcom’s next move.

Broadcom is extremely dissatisfied with the company then made a public statement on the morning of March 5 in the United States, accusing Qualcomm of the move just a meaningless resistance, and Broadcom has agreed to the U.S. government’s request to move the headquarters back to the United States, the entry into force The day will be in May, when the Foreign Investment Commission of the United States leaves no room for beating in the merger.

CFIUS is made up of representatives from the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Justice. Perhaps it is long ago expected government agencies will intervene in the acquisition, so some analysts have long said that the acquisition is not optimistic that even Qualcomm shareholders agreed to the tender offer, the case is still likely to be antitrust reasons to be Prohibited.

In any case, the involvement of the U.S. Foreign Investment Commission did get a one-month grace period for Qualcomm. In the middle of this month, Qualcomm still had more time to strategically deploy anti-mergers. After all, Broadcom moves from the end of 2017 to the end of 2017 Blitz actually let Qualcomm a little parry.

In order to protect their property from malicious mergers and acquisitions, Qualcomm can be said to have done all kinds of moves, except as early as the end of 2017 to declare the current 11 board of directors continue to stand, and Broadcom proposed candidate confrontation, but also by raising the offer At the same time, we jointly phoned partners to resist Broadcom’s merger and acquisition. In addition, we also formulated a huge amount of compensation, planned stock repurchases to raise the stock price and substantially raised the performance targets in FY2019. Back, however, Broadcom boss Hock Tan is not a good mess, in addition to profit, along the Qualcomm momentum to raise quotes, but also increased the case of mergers and acquisitions once failed to pay Qualcomm brokerage amount, hoping to take this Qualcomm shareholders can impress the mind.

Hock Tan’s practice has also proved quite effective, part of Qualcomm shareholders defeat to support Broadcom’s party.

Figure 丨 Broadcom CEO Hock Tan

But then in order to fight back through Broadcom, Qualcomm increased the purchase price of NXP, but this move Broadcom extremely dissatisfied, cut the purchase price of 4%, expecting to stand by Qualcomm Broadcom shareholders pressure, forcing Qualcomm to Fanlv. Until the end, Qualcomm said that if Broadcom proposed 90 US dollars per share, the overall 160 billion acquisition price, are happy to consult with Broadcom on the merger. Qualcomm’s move, it seems, first to appease the dissatisfaction of existing shareholders, but in fact it has begun brewing CFIUS shot the last resort intervention.

In November last year, Broadcom first proposed 130 billion US dollars acquisition of Qualcomm’s plan, and the deal once completed, will become the largest in the history of a semiconductor transaction case, the integration of the new company will also become Intel and Samsung After the world’s third largest semiconductor company.

From a deeper perspective, the two-way mergers and acquisitions also revealed some changes that are taking place in the semiconductor industry, that is, with the advent of more and more electronic devices, the demand for semiconductor chips will be higher and higher , The global chip sales exceeded $ 410 billion last year alone. With the increasing demand for computing power, fewer and fewer companies are able to produce high-performance chips and Broadcom exits the baseband market Inadequate access in areas such as cell phones, in-vehicle communications and IoT has also created an obstacle to the long-term growth of the company.

On the other hand, Hock Tan is very good at splitting up the profit-making M & A business units for profit. Considering that Qualcomm has a large number of departments, but the real profit is small. However, its technology base and patent library are quite profound. Split sale certainly can get a lot of benefits. The patent and business part of the split, but also a considerable degree of reduction monopoly disputes.

More noteworthy is Broadcom’s strong mergers and acquisitions behind, whether it also represents the interests of customers, including Apple, which is the focus of continuous observation. Although Qualcomm moved out of CFIUS as a rescuer at the last minute and hopes to gain more space over time, CFIUS will certainly inquire about its actual market competition and operating conditions, including its customers and competitors during the investigation People, therefore, whether Apple or other business attitudes toward this merger may also become a factor affecting the CFIUS findings.

A month’s time is actually not long, Qualcomm has been very difficult to have a new move to deal with Broadcom, if the move out of the United States government does not work this move, the fate of Qualcomm may also doomed to change. And finally the key is that Qualcomm for the United States in terms of its degree of importance, after all, the baseband technology can be said that the military strategist, the relevant patent can be said that the national strategic level of assets, this is not a simple business M & A behavior can be bought and sold things.

On the other hand, even if Broadcom is not able to complete the acquisition due to regulatory constraints, it is not impossible for Broadcom to resume its headquarters after it relocated its headquarters to the United States, although this may take a year or more time. But one thing must be pondered is that if a year later, Broadcom comeback to acquire Qualcomm, the price will be higher than it is now? Or low? Postponed Broadcom acquisition, in terms of Qualcomm, will be a good thing? Or bad?

This month for Qualcomm, may be time for space buffer, but to see in the eyes of some industry people, but also think this month but can let Broadcom calm down to think about opportunities, after all, in the high pass for some time Counterattack, whether it is to raise the cost of repatriation programs, or to increase the price of the acquisition of NXP, let Broadcom acquisition of Qualcomm increased risk for Broadcom, the same time in exchange for space, even if Broadcom in the Qualcomm shareholders meeting It is not necessarily a bad thing for Broadcom to successfully win over half of the board seats, or because of other regulatory reasons, unable to complete the acquisition. Because one year later, Qualcomm’s value will be higher than it is now? Broadcom acquisition of Qualcomm case so far, this month may be an unexpected turn, but it may also be a key turning point.

Shi Yigong: All fertilized eggs 3.5 billion years ago from the same cell the same material

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On January 17, 2016, Prof. Shi Yigong, vice president of Tsinghua University, dean of Tsinghua University’s School of Life Sciences, academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences and structural biologist, delivered a speech titled “The Limit of Life Science Cognition “Speech.


Where do people come from?
Today, I want to discuss with you the essence of life and the limits of life.

Let’s see where people come from

The whole process of human birth is this: A sperm floating around the surface of the egg, looking for an entrance, find the right place, it will secrete some enzymes, and then get in. Eggs are very clever, generally will not give the second sperm another chance, so once sperm come in, immediately sealed the entrance. The sperm are degraded after they come in, and then the nuclei of the sperm and the nucleus of the egg combine to form a diploid. The fertilized egg begins to develop and gradually divides into two cells, which divide into four cells, eight cells and 16 cells, When the fertilized egg is still wandering outside the uterus, not yet implanted. Continue to split, the formation of 64 cells, 128 cells, then it is about to find a place to bed. After implantation, continue to develop.

You may or may not know, just four weeks, the fetus began to have heartbeat. Slowly, the neural tube is formed, the spine is formed, the limbs begin to develop and begin to form fingers through apoptosis. By four or five months, the fetus begins to kick in the mother’s stomach. Before birth, the fetus’s brain develops very fast, a variety of synapses rapidly formed. However, do not forget, such a vivid life comes from a fertilized egg.

After the beginning of life, the course of life is very long, there are a lot of distress. I remember reading a hits poem saying: 0-year-old debut, 10-year-old thrive, 20-year-old foolish, 30-year-old struggling to break through, 40-year-old basic orientation, 50 years old looking back, 60 years old Return home, 70-year-old rub rub mahjong, 80-year-old sun, 90-year-old lying in bed, 100-year-old hanging on the wall.


How to use science to meet life challenge

The course of our lives has been challenged, with many coming from diseases, of which three have very much to do with human beings.
Among them, cardiovascular disease is the most important killer. In China alone, there are about 3.03 million people who die of cardiovascular diseases each year, accounting for 32%.

The second disease is also horrible. It is cancer. The people around us are often killed by cancer. In China, 2.65 million people die of cancer each year, accounting for 28%.

The third type of disease is not high in mortality, but it is a serious problem for people and seriously affects the quality of life. It is a neurodegenerative disease. There are many world famous people who have suffered from such diseases.

In addition, 34% died of other causes, most of them infectious diseases and a small part of traffic accidents and accidental injuries.

What I want to tell you today is how we use science to meet the challenge of life.

In ancient times, we fumbled in the darkness. For example, contemporary Tu Yo-yo is the way to find the cure for malaria. He saw the inspiration of classical pharmacy, which led to the discovery of artemisinin. Fleming’s discovery of penicillin was already explored using scientific methodologies. Since 1985, Goldstein and Brown discovered a receptor for LDL (LDL receptor), opening up a real journey to conquer cardiovascular disease.

Human beings always use science to deal with challenges, from simple exploration and accumulation of experience to the discovery of drugs driven by basic research. I have three examples to share here.

The first example is cardiovascular disease. The study found that low-density lipoproteins, which cause cardiovascular plaque, bind to receptors and are then endocytosed by endocytosis. Low-density lipophilic particles are degraded after endocytosis, and receptors are returned to the cell surface where they can be regenerated. Go to the new low-density lipoprotein to the cell, thereby reducing the harmful effects of low-density lipoprotein. In 1985, Goldstein and Brown scientists (and Wang Xiaodong’s postdoctoral fellow) were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering the receptors for low-density lipoproteins.

Many cholesterol-lowering statins have emerged, including the first in a series of cardiovascular diseases in 1987, with a large group of people, including Goldstein, Brown and Japanese scientist Endo Akira. To date, the most famous statin, Lipitor (atorvastatin), has been granted a patent term and somebody else should have taken the drug. Before it expired in 2011 patent, the global sales of up to 16 billion US dollars, called the drug god.

We have been using basic research to explore the most cutting-edge and disease-fighting methods. Although we have a lot of statins, many people with hyperlipidemia only eat statins and can not stop the plaque and the plaque The formation of blocks. Why? The scientists found that because LDL receptors in these bodies are gradually degraded and can not be recovered, how to restore the number of their receptors is at the heart of the problem.

A few years ago, scientists found the PCSK9 protein, which binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors. After binding to the receptor, low-density lipoprotein particles are pulled together by the receptor endocytosis, that is, low-density lipoprotein receptor while being endocytosed by the cells at the expense of, it can no longer flow Low-density lipoprotein in the blood is degraded, so a large number of low-density lipoprotein accumulation, the formation of soft plaque and hard plaque, and finally bring about a fatal cardiovascular disease. This process was discovered by basic research, and Helen, the famous scientist who discovered the process, was a woman who won the 2015 Life Science Breakthrough Award.

The second example we talk about the new dawn of cancer treatment, that is, we have heard many times the “immunotherapy.” One of the best-known examples of this immunotherapy is that on August 20, 2015, former U.S. President Carter announced to all who care about him that he had advanced melanoma and that there were already four 2-mm-large tumors in the brain Inside, he has spread, and he does not think he has much time. However, just three months later, on December 6, 2015, he again appeared in front of everyone and told people that by molecular therapy, four tumors in his brain were completely lost.

His molecular therapies include a well-known immunotherapy that is directed at monoclonal antibodies to PD-1 surface receptors. Immunotherapy fundamentally changed the way humans fight diseases. James Allison, creator of the therapy and discoverer of the concept, also received a Life Science Breakthrough Award. Among the scientists who have made significant contributions to this process is the inclusion of a Chinese, Dr. Chen Ping.

The third example is a neurodegenerative disease. Unfortunately, humankind has so far not been aware of the cause. Although I can tell you many theories, data and practices, we only know about the disease. Now that 47 million people in the world are suffering from the disease, it is estimated that in 2050 there will be a new patient every 3 seconds and more than 130 million of us will be troubled by it.

The most famous of neurodegenerative diseases is Alzheimer’s disease, also known as Alzheimer’s disease. The patient suffering from this disease is very painful, because life can not take care of themselves. In the brain of patients with advanced dementia there is a terrible hole in which the brain is swallowed up. Although you do not know exactly what caused Alzheimer’s disease, it is generally acknowledged that if you know Alzheimer’s disease at the molecular level, it may bring hope to the treatment.

My own lab is also working in this direction. Last year we reported for the first time in atomic resolution the structure of a human γ-secretase that is directly related to Alzheimer’s. This human γ-secretase is thought to be a causative protein that is essential for Alzheimer’s disease, so perhaps by Subsequent deepening of research, we can find ways to treat Alzheimer’s disease.


There is a limit to cognitive life

I cite examples of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and finally the transition to the brain. Not to mention that we are not aware of the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease and we know little about such a mysterious organ as the brain. We basically can say nothing. Although we have a good model of learning and memory, we can simulate the process of learning and memory, but is it true? We really do not know.

I even consider the neural impulse potential, including our electrical signal record, to be just an appearance and not necessarily the essence of learning and memory. Why? Because we are really such a biological person, a bunch of atoms constitute people who understand life.

We are understanding the world with our five senses, that is, sight, smell, hearing, taste and touch. This process is not objective, certainly not objective. After our facial features have sensed the world, we concentrate all our attention on the brain, but we do not know how the brain works, so we can not call it objective in this respect.

What exactly are we? Think about it, how do people deal with the message? Let’s first define the message, which is the matter.

We have three levels of material:

The first material is macroscopic, that is, what we can perceive and can see through intuition. For example, man is a material, a house is a material, and Tiananmen Square and the Forbidden City are all things.

The second level is microscopic, including what the eye can not see, also known as microscopic. We can perceive it with instruments, measure it, and intuitively think it exists, such as atoms, molecules, proteins, Billions of light years away from the planet.

The third level, is the micro-material. For this class, we can only speculate on the theory, experimentally verified, but never know what it is, including quantum, including photons. Although we know that the particles can have spin and energy level, but we really difficult to intuitive understanding, this is the micro-world.

Nevertheless, we still have to think about this world is the micro-micro-world decided micro-world, the micro-world decided the macro world. What is human being? Man is an individual in the macroscopic world. Therefore, our nature must be determined by the microcosmic world and then by the microcosmic world. I have no doubt that I am a Schrödinger equation, a life form, an energy form, but do not know how to solve this equation, do not know how thinking is produced, nothing more. I believe you should also believe that each of us is not just a bunch of atoms, but a bunch of particles.

So, we are really a bunch of atoms made of particles, so simple. How many atoms do we have? There are about 6 × 10 ^ 27 atoms, forming about 60 different elements, but the real more elements, but a region of 11 species. Atoms covalently bond to form molecules, and molecules come together to form molecular aggregates, which then form small organelles, cells, tissues, and organs that eventually form a whole. But you will feel that no matter how you do research, you can not explain the human consciousness, which goes beyond what we can say and can perceive. I think in order to explain the consciousness, we must go beyond the first two levels to examine the quantum mechanics level. I think so.


Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon that can evolve?

So I want to talk about class struggle to tell quantum. In 1935, after Einstein and Podolsky and Rosen wrote the famous EPR paradox, he proposed quantum entanglement. In fact, the term “quantum entanglement” was not proposed by Einstein but rather by Schrödinger, and it seemed incredible at that time.

Quantum entanglement means that two entangled quantum no matter how far apart, they are not independent events. When you measure a quantum, another quantum very far away can actually be known about its state, which can be measured in association. It is inconceivable. But since such a simple phenomenon exists in the objective world, I believe it will be ubiquitous, including in our human body. This is the case? Of course it is. Quantum entanglement how affect our lives, in fact, we do not know why? Because this is not what we can feel with intuition.

Matthew Fisher, a well-known theoretical and experimental physicist at the University of California at Santa Barbara, believes that human consciousness, memory and thinking are quantum entangled and that quantum theory should be used to explain this. Then how to prove it? He said I must prove in kind, to find the entangled entities. Many scientists find for a long time and found that the microtubules in nerve cells can form quantum entanglement, but the microtubule time scale is 10 ^ (-20) seconds to 10 ^ (- 13) seconds, far less than human memory and Consciousness of the formation time. But he found it in a simulated way through theoretical practice, and he is experimenting with it.

For example, phosphorus and calcium together, that is, calcium phosphate, when calcium phosphate exists in the form of Posner molecule or cluster, its quantum entanglement time can be as long as 105 seconds! Can such an extremely vulnerable , The duration of quantum entanglement, which is extremely sensitive to sound, light, electricity and heat, is increased by 15 orders of magnitude, so if the order of magnitude is further increased by 5 orders of magnitude, the year level can be reached and the quantum entanglement can be preserved in years.

And so on, do you not think that one day we humans will find quantum entanglement is an evolutionary phenomenon, it can save a hundred years, a thousand years, ten thousand years. In other words, quantum entanglement, which existed in ancient times, was preserved in the evolutionary process.

I want to ask you four questions.

The first question, do you believe that there is a sixth sensory? A lot of people will say do not believe.

The second question, is it possible that two people will communicate in an unknown way? You may say, maybe not, as surely as you did not believe in the first question.

The third question is whether quantum entanglement exists in the cognitive world of mankind? Exists in the brain? I believe it is quite possible to hear my lecture.

The fourth question, is quantum entanglement suitable for matter on Earth? You will certainly say that it must work because we have already proved it.

However, in fact, simply speaking, these four questions are exactly the same questions. The reverse is the sixth sensory fact, but we can not feel it, so it is called “the sixth sensory organ.”

So what are we all about? We are just a cell came over is the fertilized egg, all the fertilized eggs 3.5 billion years ago, all from the same cell, the same substance, a system of complex quantum entanglement ,It’s that simple.

In fact, I do not know what is inside, but I believe it. Every time I breathe, I inhale 10 ^ 22 power of oxygen into my body, into the covalent structure. This mouth breathing at least 10 ^ 4 or more oxygen atoms, is in a very distant corner of the world, I have never seen people breathe at least once, which will be done in a month, all one’s life I’ve been doing this While two people are in a room, 63 grams of oxygen per day can be exchanged among each other’s lungs.

As science develops today, we see the world as completely as a blind person. The world we see is tangible, and we ourselves consider it an objective world. In fact, the mass of the material we know is only 4% in the universe. The remaining 96% of the material is in a form we do not know at all. We call it dark matter and dark energy.

So blind people understand the world as a science? It must be science. Everyone’s touch is real, and all are objective, all are visible and tangible, as we are now. Only we do not know the touch is like the back, or tail, or ears. I think the human cognitive limit is that we are a bunch of atoms, we are in a macro world, but we hope to see the two worlds to see the micro-world. It is one of the most beautiful, extremely wonderful world.


How much of the world we do not know?

With the rise of quantum satellites, science about quantum things: What is the forefront of contemporary science and technology discovered? Even subvert the world view of mankind!

Our world, because of the latest science, chaos!

First, disrupted the world’s three scientific achievements

(A) dark matter

01, how to find dark matter? The shape of the universe we originally knew was the mutual attraction between the planet and the planet by gravitation. You turned around me. I turned around and the planets were in a hurry and orderly.

But later, scientists calculated that the gravitational attraction between the planet and the planet found that the gravitational attraction of the planet itself was far from enough to maintain a complete galaxy. If galaxies and planets have mere gravitation support of the existing mass, the universe should be a mess of sand. The reason why the universe can maintain the existing order can only be because there are other things as well. And so far this material, we have not seen and found, so, called the dark matter.

02, how many dark matter? Scientists calculate that the quality of the dark matter must be five times as large as the one we now see, in order to preserve the current functioning order of the universe.

03, there is no observed dark matter? Now there is no real measure of dark matter. Only the light can be found to deflect when it passes somewhere without the material we can see and no black holes.

04, black hole is not dark matter? Not The black hole is just out of the light, it emits other rays, it is still conventional matter.

(B) dark energy

01, how to find dark energy? Observations by scientists have found that our present universe is not only expanding but accelerating. It is also understandable if it expands at a constant rate. But to accelerate the expansion, you need to have new energy to join. What is this energy? Scientists also confused, named dark energy.

02, how many dark energy? Scientists calculate, through the mass-energy conversion equation E = MC2, to maintain this rate of expansion of the current universe, which should be twice as much as the sum of existing and dark matter.

03, have not found the dark energy? So far, not yet.

(C) Quantum entanglement

Modern scientific discovery, material research, after entering the microscopic level of molecules, atoms, and quantum, the accident is very large. The emergence of superconductors, nanoscale, graphene and other revolutionary materials, there miracles from the molecular level to cure cancer. The most amazing is – quantum entanglement.

01, what is quantum entanglement? Scientific experiments have found that two quantum bodies that have no relationship with each other will exhibit exactly the same behavior in different positions. For example, there is no conventional relation between two quantum distances far apart (not far from the quantum level, km, light-year or even farther), one with a change of state and the other with the same change of state almost at the same time And it’s no coincidence.

02, Have you observed quantum entanglement? Quantum entanglement is proposed by the theory, experimentally verified. Scientists have achieved entanglement of 6-8 ions. Our scientists have realized the resolution and entanglement of 13-km quantum entangled states.


Disrupted world

01, turmoil of the philosophical world

We originally thought that the world was material, devoid of God, no specific function, and consciousness was another kind of existence that was opposed to matter. Now we find that the material we know is only 5% of this universe. The two qubits without any connection can be entangled as gods do. Put consciousness into molecular, quantum state to analyze, consciousness is actually a matter.

Since there are still 95% of things in the universe that we do not know, that soul and ghost can exist. Since quantum energy is entangled, that sixth sense, specific function can also exist. At the same time, who can guarantee that there are some things or creatures among these unknown substances that can completely and completely affect our various states through quantum entanglement? So God can exist as well.

02, collapsed physical world

All of our current physics theories are based on the speed of light. It has been determined that the entanglement of quantum conduction velocity, at least 4 times the speed of light.

03, collapse of the inner world

Today, the world we have seen has only reached 5% of the world. This is a thousand years ago, humankind did not know that there was air, do not know the electric field, the magnetic field, and did not know the elements. Compared to the sky and the sky, our unknown world is much more and more unimaginable.

The world is so unknown, human beings are so ignorant, what else we have to embarrass?

Why are e-commerce eager to become members? Take a look at Amazon’s data experience

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According to Forbes magazine, Amazon reported fourth-quarter and full-year earnings for 2017 with net sales of $ 179.9 billion in 2017, a 31% increase from 2016’s $ 136 billion and net profit of $ 2.4 billion in 2016 Increase to 3 billion US dollars by 2017. The latest financial results also reflect the fact that as the company’s efforts in international markets, technology, content and marketing are driving up the growth in operating expenses is squeezing margins.

Amazon Amazon Prime is an annual affiliate program that includes unlimited free delivery of over 100 million items, unlimited live broadcasts of thousands of movies and TV shows, Alexa Voice Shopping, and unlimited free access to thousands of Kindle books and content. Amazon Prime also includes the same day free shipping for certain products. In addition, Amazon also plans to introduce fine-tuning services later this year that are commonly used in deep learning.

Revenue from online subscription services, such as Amazon Prime members, Audible, Prime Video and Prime Music Unlimited, grew 49% year-over-year and easily exceeded the 20% increase in online store revenue. In January 2018, Amazon raised the monthly fee for Amazon Prime members by $ 2 to $ 12.99 and annual fees totaled $ 156. In addition, Amazon set a $ 99 discount on Amazon Prime members who choose to pay an annual fee. Cowen & Company, an investment company, estimates that Amazon is adding $ 2 a month to bring in about $ 300 million a year in revenue. The following numbers provide insight into the explosive growth of Amazon Prime:

1. By 2018, 51% of U.S. households will become Amazon Amazon Prime members, up from 45% in 2017. Amazon Prime members spend 4.6 times more than non-Prime users. Morgan Stanley, an investment bank in the United States, estimates that for the past 12 months Amazon Prime members spent an average of $ 2,486 instead of Prime members spending an average of just $ 544.

2. According to consumer intelligence research partner Statista, there are currently about 90 million paid Amazon Prime users in the United States. The number of Amazon Prime members in the June 2016 63 million, and by September 2017 has grown to 90 million. From 25 million members in December 2013 to 90 million in September last year, Amazon subscribers in the past 5 years, the annual growth rate of 29.2%. Statista found Amazon Prime members spend an average of $ 1,300 a year, compared to $ 700 a year for non Prime members.

3.70% Americans who earn $ 150,000 or more have Amazon Prime membership. Alexa, Echo, Dash, IoT, Smart Home and Prime Now are the key to attracting and retaining quality customers who have higher disposable income and are willing to pay for their convenience. Amazon recognizes that their most profitable customers are facing constant time constraints due to work and travel plans. The Prime Service Roadmap continues to reflect the propensity to service and speed service to high-income families, many of whom are dual-time workers who are invaluable in their time.

4.46% of Amazon Prime members shop online at least once a week. In contrast, only 13% of non-Prime members shop weekly. Amazon’s surge in services helps retain major customers. On a trusted platform, Amazon combines a broad portfolio of services with real-time convenience, an indispensable way of life for those who have high disposable income and little extra time.

5. Between 2016 and 2018, Prime Prime Amazon for Amazon grew at a CAGR of 56%, up 2 times that of US affiliates while delivering short-term (1 or 2 hours delivery The number of services will increase.

6. By 2022, the United States will have 56 million Amazon Prime video subscribers, reaching 122 million people worldwide. In four years, Amazon Prime video subscribers are expected to grow to 122 million globally, with 45.9% of users coming from the United States.

7. Amazon Prime Video is Amazon’s main catalyst for growth for new users in Japan, Germany and the United Kingdom. Amazon Prime members jumped 16% in Japan in just three months after Prime Instant Video was introduced. With the introduction of Prime Instant Video, prime user subscription rates in the United Kingdom and Germany have also risen.

8.63% of Amazon’s online shoppers are also Amazon Prime members. New primary users from existing online users have started to slow down compared to double-digit growth elsewhere in the Amazon. Amazon’s strategy of expanding its services and equipment foundations, including Alexa, to attract new users has also shown signs in its latest earnings report.

9. Amazon’s Prime membership is 3.4 times more than the Whole Foods Supermarket and is currently changing the pricing and profitability of the food retail. Amazon is using its supply chain, logistics and distribution center to actively readjust the pattern of the food retail industry. Morgan Stanley found that the main reason consumers are not shopping in the grocery stores is lower prices elsewhere. Today, Amazon’s introduction of selective price cuts at Whole Foods is market-driven.

10. Amazon is combining Prime Now’s short-term distribution with the local stockpile of the all-food supermarket to expand its lucrative grocery delivery business. One of the most attractive benefits of Prime members is that Amazon is expanding the profitability of its delivery business by increasing the variety of products Prime Prime can deliver and the flexibility to order short-delivery products.

Google once again breakthrough in the quantum computer, released 72 qubits processor

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According to a 9to5google foreign media report, Google Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory announced the advent of the Bristlecone quantum processor, which “provides a more convincing proof of principle for building larger quantum computers.”

Quantum computing is often referred to as a frontier in the technology industry and is expected to dramatically improve the computational performance of the device. But the field is still in its early stages of development and many companies are exploring this area.

Quantum computing is the intersection of computer science and quantum physics. The current computer still relies on the Boolean logic system to operate, the Boolean type has only two values: true and false.

Quantum computing refers to a new design of hardware and software at the algorithmic level by replacing the Boolean logic system with quantum laws. For optimization, sampling, search or quantum simulation and other operations, quantum computing technology is expected to significantly improve the speed of operation.

At a meeting of the American Physical Society in Los Angeles, Google claimed that the Bristlecone processor could serve as a “test platform to study system error rates and the scalability of qubit technology, as well as in quantum simulation, optimization and machine learning.”

The Bristlecone processor has 72 qubits and “low error rates for data reads and logic operations such as single-quantum and double-qubit gates.”

Quantum hegemony is a quantum leap ahead of a traditional supercomputer when it comes to solving a well-defined computational science problem with a very low error-rate quantum processor.

However, no one has realized “quantum hegemony” yet. To achieve the goal of “quantum hegemony,” the required conditions are 49-qubit processors with circuit depths in excess of 40 and double-qubit bit errors less than 0.5%.

Google pointed out that cautiously optimistic, Bristlecone processor can achieve “quantum hegemony.” Quantum AI Lab says the integration of hardware and software is a key part of this process and may require “several iterations” before quantum computing can solve the problems that computers can not solve today.

Softbank network in the area of about 20 billion US dollars investment vehicles, and then see them kill each other?

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According to the Wall Street Journal, Japan’s SoftBank, the world’s largest tech investor, has already invested $ 20 billion in global car-service companies, including Uber, a car-service giant. Now, however, these companies are competing with each other at least for part of their SoftBank investments.

In Japan, Uber is poised to compete with China’s dribbling trips, which are planning to enter the Japanese market after acquiring about $ 10 billion in Softbank investments. In India, Uber is facing competition from Ola, a taxi service owned by ANI Technologies, a local company that owns about 30% of Ola’s shares and board seats. This year, Softbank acquired Uber 15% of the shares for 7.7 billion U.S. dollars.

Uber and Ola also have fierce competition in Australia, and Ola began operating there in February this year. In South East Asia, Uber lags behind Singapore-based Grab, which received a $ 750 million investment from SoftBank in 2016, with its president from SoftBank.

Dara Khosrowshahi, Uber’s chief executive, said in a February visit to Tokyo: “If you plan to do business with Softbank, you have to get accustomed to their habit of doing business in competition.” Softbank’s Goals It is the start-up company it invests in helping each other, which is what Coslosagh calls the “Softbank family.”

According to people familiar with the thinking of SoftBank founder Masayoshi Son, the idea behind this idea is that these companies can work together in research and development and seek joint ventures in a global shift to driverless cars.

At a recent press conference, Son Masayi said: “If Uber, Dribble, or Grab’s management would talk to each other and reach an agreement that would raise shareholder value, we will look at that.” But we will not force They do anything. ”

Venture capitalists say they typically stay cautious and do not invest in rival companies because doing so can lead to concerns of distrust or conflict of interest. In addition, the conventional wisdom is that it does not make much sense to fund a company that may cannibalize this revenue.

Vinnie Lauria, founder of Golden Gate Ventures, a venture capital firm in Singapore, said Softbank is breaking some of these rules in part because it owes so much money that it looks more like “a company looking to consolidate its markets Private Equity Acquisition Company. ”

Founded by Son Zhengyi in 1981, Softbank, which was originally a software distributor, has now invested in more than 1,300 companies. The company’s best-known investment, which invested $ 20 million in 2000 to support Alibaba Group, has become about $ 140 billion.

As Softbank acquired a large number of shares of US wireless operator Sprint and the British chip design company ARM Holdings, Sun turned to external investors last year to launch the $ 92 billion Vision Fund, the world’s largest technology fund. This well-funded fund gives SoftBank more flexibility to make long-term global investments in sectors such as on-demand transportation. Softbank executives said they are willing to tolerate temporary infighting between invested taxi service companies and are prepared to wait 10 years or more for high returns.

Softbank executives also said that eventually only one car service company will dominate each region. Given the size of each market, these companies may find it unnecessary to expand further. In the meantime, executives say they will not mind more cooperation.

However, Softbank has a strategic impact on the companies it invests in, after all, having only a minority stake and controlling one or two seats on the board of directors. But for Uber, Drip and other start-ups, Softbank’s additional investment means they will have more “firepower” to keep fighting as they seek global growth.

While interviewed by reporters in New Delhi recently, Coslosassi said: “Although Softbank may have its own opinions, their opinions are not the only opinions.” He declined to comment on whether Softbank is pushing Uber to merge with its competitors.

In Japan, due to its strict local regulations, it is one of the few major markets that have not been hit by the wave of global car sales, and the family relationships that Softbank desperately wants begin to burst. A similar strategy is being adopted by Softbank-backed Drips and Uber to capture the Japanese market, which sets the stage for competition.

Uber currently uses Uber Eats and black taxi deployment services in Japan. In February of this year, Drip Drop said it will form a joint venture with Softbank to enter the market and launch an application to connect passengers to licensed cabs rather than to regular cars. This move addresses the concerns of Japanese regulators over the gray market.

In the meantime, Coslosasi said Uber will look for better opportunities in Japan’s $ 16 billion taxi industry. In a February event in Tokyo, he said: “Obviously, we need a different way of doing business, that is, working with the taxi industry.”

Informed sources said that in India, Ola worried that Softbank may push its business operations and Uber merger, rather than remain independent. Ola was founded in 2011, which is Uber into India two years ago. Last year, SoftBank was involved in a $ 1.1 billion Ola-led financing by China Tencent.

Meanwhile, Uber is competing with Grab, another rival backed by Softbank, for dominance in Southeast Asia. Last year, Grab received a $ 2.5 billion investment from Softbank and Pittsburgh. Founded in 2012, the company operates in 178 cities in Southeast Asia. Uber arrived in the area in 2013 and operates in more than 60 cities.

Olaf Sakkers, a partner at Maniv Mobility, an Israeli venture capital fund that specializes in autonomous driving, said: “The competition is hard to control, and funding both parties to a price war will be very expensive “

AirPods unexpectedly inspired Apple, is developing high-end noise-canceling headphones

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According to Bloomberg News, Apple’s AirPods headset sales surprisingly popular. Now, the company is planning to enter the high-end headphone market, in order to achieve its ambitions in the audio field.

According to people familiar with the situation, the tech giant headquartered in Cupertino, California, is developing a noise-canceling headphone that rivals current leaders in the market, such as Bose and Apple’s own Beats brand. Informed sources said that Apple plans to launch the headset as early as the end of this year, but now faces development challenges that may cause it to postpone the release.

In the past year, the development of Apple’s headphones has been intermittent. Informed sources said the company encountered similar problems in the development of smart speaker HomePod, including several redesigns. They warn that Apple may redesign the headset before release or simply abandon the project. Apple spokesman declined to comment.

Earlier this year, Apple released a $ 349 smart home Speaker HomePod, re-planned to launch high-end headphones. In addition to noise reduction, Apple also plans to include wireless pairing features like AirPods. This will be Apple’s latest series of music-focused products and services.

The iPod and iTunes stores have revolutionized the way music is consumed, the digital download is up and the physical CD is down. Apple’s largest acquisition in the history of 2014 was the $ 3 billion acquisition of Beats, a deal that allowed Apple to enter the high-end headphones and music streaming media.

HomePod’s voice got a lot of acclaim this year, and Apple is already preparing other audio accessories, such as upgrading to AirPods, adding waterproofing and a new wireless chip that lets Siri be voice-activated.

So far, AirPods has been a key factor in the success of Apple’s “other products.” These products, including AirPods, Beats earphones, Apple Watch, Apple TV and iPad accessories, generated more than $ 5 billion (for the first time) in the first quarter of Apple’s revenue, an increase of 36%.

Apple said at a recent earnings conference call that sales of wearable products, including smartwatches, AirPods and Beats earphones, soared 70% last year among such products.

Apple executives said in the acquisition of Beats Music and Beats Electronics in 2014 that the success of the headset business was the biggest driver. Apple-branded headphones seem to replace Beats headsets, though Beats sells lower-priced wireless headsets and may not compete directly with new products. Despite the popularity of AirPods, sports-oriented wireless Beats headphones still seem to be selling well.

When Apple introduced Apple Music in 2015, it abandoned the Beats music streaming name. However, taking into account the advantages of Beats headphones, the company may retain the brand while continuing to develop new headphones.

Research and Markets said that Beats, Bose, Sennheiser, Sony and Skullcandy are both leaders in the headphone market, and by 2023 the headphone market will have annual revenues of $ 20 billion, almost double the expected sales this year. Researchers at the NPD Group said last year that sales of AirPods and Beats headsets helped Apple make up 27% of the market for wireless headsets, accounting for half of revenues.

For the new Apple headphones, pricing will be the key. HomePod costs more than $ 100 more than Sonos, $ 200 more than Amazon Echo, and $ 50 less than Google’s Home Max. Beats and Bose’s high-end wireless headphones are priced at $ 350, while Sennheiser prices range from $ 100 to $ 500.

TechInsights data shows Apple costs $ 349 for a HomePod at a cost of $ 216, meaning its margins are much lower than other Apple hardware products. AirPods are hard to assemble and use unusual design tips, which can make them expensive to produce. Apple headphones may use similar audio technologies, pushing up costs.

NASA to launch new telescope next month or find “new Earth” outside the solar system

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In a clean room at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, a small telescope is being placed on a plateau for the final series of tests before launch. The reason why the test is extremely strict is that the four cameras of this telescope will have no protective cover when fired. This is one of the simplified design decisions NASA has made to help TSP achieve its goal of detecting at least 50 potential small-sized rocky planets.

In fact, the TESS proposal is even older than NASA’s Kepler telescope project. Kepler, launched in 2009, confirms the space survivability of the extraterrestrial planetary probe. Both telescopes have adopted the “Lingri method” to find extraterrestrial planets. The Kepler telescope not only confirms that Lingri Fa is a powerful planetary search technology but also finds that our galaxy is populated with an alarming number of planets, many of which are two to four times larger than our own.

In the initial mission phase, the Kepler telescope searched for stars a thousand light-years away in the starry sky of Cygnus, Lyra and Draco. So far, scientists have determined that out of the roughly 170,000 stars Kepler has explored, 2,341 aliens orbiting these stars revolve around them. Another 4496 candidate planets have not yet been identified, but many of the planets may never be validated because their host stars are too dim to make ground-based telescopes more difficult to observe in subsequent studies.

TESS project team used a reverse observation method, first using the ground observation station to determine the candidate class of planets, and then astronomical telescopes to determine the observation target. They selected about 200,000 stars for the first two years of TESS’s mission. The European Space Agency’s Gaia telescope details each of the target stars, and the Gaia telescope is creating a catalog of the universe’s most complete planetary positions and distances ever recorded.

Most of TESS’s targets are within 300 light-years of Earth’s distance and closer to most of the stars explored by the Kepler telescope, and their brightness is even brighter. Stephen Rinehart, a project scientist from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, said: “In the TESS project, we will be able to conduct follow-up ground tracking studies of all our targets and that’s a matter of sequence and there is no issue of ability.”

Ling-day detection technology to detect the relative size of the planet and host stars. If multiple canvassing phenomena can be observed, scientists can also determine the position of the star’s orbit from the star. This information can then be used to assess its temperature and the likelihood of liquid water on its surface, which is the planet Is a key factor in livable.

But assessing the mass of a planet requires determining whether it is made of metals and rocks similar to the Earth or ice and gas, when astronomers probe with a geospatial telescope. This usually requires a medium-sized observatory to observe the star’s light swing caused by gravitational attraction. The TESS project is recruiting dozens of astronomers to participate in the project, and plans to use the free time of several ground-based telescopes for follow-up research.

TESS is currently scheduled to launch in mid-April this year, about two months after its launch, it will begin to search nearby nearby planets. At that time, the astronomical telescope should have reached a certain point in Earth’s orbit, orbiting roughly 67,300 miles from Earth, and then it will approach the lunar orbit, some 234,000 miles away. When TESS is at its highest point in Earth’s orbit, the moon will form a 90-degree angle on the left or right hand side of it, becoming its orbital stabilizer, enabling TESS to achieve gravitational forces over the decades without manipulating the thrusters Stable.

This eccentric orbit allows TESS to remain in deep space for most of the time, which also minimizes the effects of light reflected from Earth and the Moon. TESS runs around the Earth every 13.7 days, twice as fast as the moon. As TESS approaches the Earth, it will suspend its observation mission for the next 10 hours and transmit the stored scientific data to three ground receiving stations at NASA’s Deep Space Communications Network. Those data will be delivered at high speeds, a transport network that paves the way for other data-intensive space missions in the future, including the James Webb Space Telescope.

The TESS data includes not only the brightness measurement every two minutes for each target star, but also the cosmic panorama of more than 20 million stars and 10 million galaxies taken every half hour. Patricia Boyd, an astronomer who is responsible for TESS recruitment at NASA, said: “It’s work will bring us valuable data and we expect this archive to last for years.”

The four cameras on this space telescope cover a 24-degree-wide, 96-degree wedge, equivalent to about 10,000 stars in the sky. TESS changes its viewing angle every two laps, and it covers the entire southern hemisphere of the sky during the first year of operation. As a result, TESS will detect 90% of the sky and will be able to detect 400 times more than the Kepler Space Telescope.

Astronomers are most interested in the stars around the pole, these stars directly above or below the zodiac plane. The stellar world in these regions will be the next major research goal of the James Webb Space Telescope. The James Webb Space Telescope will attempt to infer the atmospheric chemistry of some of the transit alien planets. The Weber space telescope is expected to be launched in 2019.

George Ticker, chief scientist at the TESS project, said at MIT’s George Ricker: “TESS acts as a finder for Webb Space Telescope, and the specific stars discovered by TESS are in fact potential hosts for alien planets. TESS completed the survey of 50 small Mission objectives for planetary quality should not be difficult.Computer simulations show that the number of planets identified by the research team should exceed 500 before the first three years of ground-based observational events, rather than the 50 initially set.

In the end, the TESS project should be able to add as many as 20,000 new planets to the catalog of extraterrestrial planets. Most new planets will run around red dwarfs, which are about a quarter to one half the diameter of our sun, but they will be darker and cooler. About 70% of the stars in the Milky Way are red dwarfs, and they are also the main targets of the TESS project.

Rinehart, a project scientist, said: “The most exciting part of any new assignment is the surprising finding I really hope we can find something weird someday in the future, something we can not explain and need to think about I think we will certainly find out, but I do not know what it is. ”


Stanford students asked Apple to develop “cell phones for the elderly”

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In 2005, Apple founder Joe Bangzhu once encouraged his classmates at a famous speech at Stanford: “time is limited.” However, Joe may help the Lord will not think that after a decade, this sentence was Stanford classmates “live and learn to use” to “boycott” Apple’s products – they want to addicted to Apple’s mobile phone, iPad grab the time Come back and ask Apple to develop a “core mode of mode” that can only make calls, send and receive text messages, and take pictures …

Stanford University students protest at the Apple store door According to “Stanford Daily”
Stanford University student organizations “anti-electronic device addiction” campaign, Apple as the primary goal

According to the Insider Web site, a few days ago, led by computer science students, Stanford students are currently organizing a campaign called “Anti-Electronic Device Addiction (SSAAD)” and held at an Apple Store in Silicon Valley just over the weekend Parade protest. And in the protest, they made a very creative request, hoping Apple to develop a “core functional model”, open the model, the phone can only make calls, send text messages and take pictures.

Stanford University newspaper introduction, students believe Apple did not do enough to resist the growing mobile addiction. On the organization’s website, students explain in detail why they specifically target Apple devices as a primary goal to combat addiction.

“The iPhone is the threshold for many teens to engage with social software that makes them addictive, so it’s the most powerful control valve that helps teens out of the addiction to playing mobiles,” the site wrote. “And Apple’s business model does not need to be built on ‘Addiction’, unlike many software, the more people use, the more they earn … Even then, they do not do enough to assume the role of reducing adolescence The responsibility of addiction. ”

Students put forward more ways to avoid cell phone addiction, agreed by scientists

In the meantime, these students also give users ways to avoid phone addiction – turn off software pop-up windows, or simply turn your phone into a gray screen mode to “minimize the amount of cell phone irritation your dopamine secretion “. And this approach, also by many scientists, “praise” – According to the “Daily Mail” reported that Google former design ethic Tristan Harris said he was also a cell phone addict before, but the color of the iPhone mobile phone change Into the gray screen to quit this habit.

Turn the phone into a gray screen helps people quit cell phone addiction According to the “Daily Mail”

He said that many software will use bright colors as the main color of their app, allowing users to create a “want to use” subconscious. This situation is not uncommon, he had done a similar experiment in his own office: the candies from the glass jar into the opaque jar, the staff to eat candy significantly reduced the behavior, which replaced the phone into a gray Screen is a reason.